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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
avoidance learning
The learning of behaviors that allow an organism to avoid an aversive stimulus.
behavior modification (B-mod)
The systematic application of learning principles to strength hen adaptive behavior and weaken maladaptive behavior.
behavior therapy
A form of therapy that involves the systematic application of the principles of learning.
classical conditioning
The process of learning by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response identical or similar to one that was originally elicited by another stimulus as the result of the pairing or association of the two stimuli.
cognitive learning
Learning that occurs without the opportunity of first performing the learned response or being reinforced for it.
cognitive map
A mental representation of an area that helps an organism navigate its way from one point to another.
computer-assisted instruction
A form of programmed instruction in which a computer is used to guide a student through a series of increasingly difficult questions.
conditioned emotional reaction (CER)
An emotional response to a particular stimulus acquired through classical conditioning.
conditioned response (CR)
An acquired or learned response to a conditioned stimulus.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
A previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
conditioned taste aversions
Aversions to particular tastes acquired through classical conditioning.
discriminative stimulus
A cue that signals that reinforcement t is available if the subject makes a particular response.
escape learning
The learning of behaviors that allow an organism to escape from an aversive stimulus.
extinction
The gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response.
immune system
The body’s system of defense against disease.
insight learning
The process of mentally working through a problem unit l the sudden realization of a solution occurs.
latent learning
Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and that is not displayed until reinforcement is provided.
Law of Effect
Thorndike’s principle that responses that have satisfying effects are m ore likely to recur, whereas those that have unpleasant effects are less likely to recur.
learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior acquired through experience.
negative reinforcement
The strengthening of a response through the removal of a stimulus after the response occurs.
neutral stimulus (NS)
A stimulus that before conditioning does not produce a particular response.
observational learning
Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others (also called vicarious learning or modeling ).
operant conditioning
The process of learning in which the consequences of a response determine the probability that the response will be repeated.
operant response
A response that operates on the environment to produce certain consequences.
phobias
Excessive fears of particular ob jests or situations.
positive reinforcement
The strengthening of a response through the introduction of a stimulus after the response occurs.
primary reinforcers
Reinforcers, such as food or sexual stimulation, that are naturally rewarding because they satisfy basic biological needs or drives.
programmed instruction
A learning method in which complex material is broken down into a series of small steps that learners master at their own pace.
punishment
The introduction of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a reinforcing stimulus after a response occurs, which leads to the weakening or suppression of the e response.
radical behaviorism
The philosophical position that free will is an illusion or myth and that human and animal behavior is completely determined by environmental and genetic influences.
reconditioning
The process of relearning a conditioned response following extinction.
reinforcer
A stimulus or event that increases the probability that the response it follows will be repeated.
schedule of continuous reinforcement
A system of dispensing a reinforcement each time a response is produced.
schedule of partial reinforcement
A system of reinforcement in which only a portion of responses is reinforced.
schedules of reinforcement
Predetermined plans for timing the delivery of reinforcement.
secondary reinforcers
Learned reinforcers, such as money, that develop their reinforcing properties because of their association with primary reinforcers.
shaping
A process of learning that involves the reinforcement of increasingly closer approximations of the desired response.
Skinner box
An experimental apparatus developed by B. F. Skinner for studying relationships between reinforcement and behavior.
spontaneous recovery
The spontaneous return of a conditioned response following extinction.
stimulus discrimination
The tendency to differentiate among stimuli so that stimuli that are related to the original conditioned stimulus, but not identical al to it, fail to elicit a conditioned response.
stimulus generalization
The tendency for stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response.
superstitionous behavior
In Skinner’s view, behavior acquired through coincidental association of a response and a reinforcement.
token economy program
A form of behavior mod fiction in which tokens earned for performing desired behaviors can be exchanged for positive reinforcers.
unconditioned response (UR)
An unlearned response to a stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
A stimulus that elicits an unlearned response.