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672 Cards in this Set

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The tendency of 8to 12month-old infants to search for a hidden object in the place they last found it (A) rather than in its new hiding place (B).
A-not-B error
The practice in education of grouping students according to ability and educating them in classes with students of comparable academic or intellectual standing
ability grouping; also called ability tracking or simply tracking.
A dimension of parenting capturing the extent to which parents are supportive, sensitive to their childrenÍs needs, and willing to provide affection and praise when their children meet their expectations.
acceptance_responsiveness
In PiagetÍs cognitive developmental theory, the process of modifying existing schemes to incorporate or adapt to new experiences. Contrast with assimilation. In vision, a change in the shape of the eyeÍs lens to bring objects at differing distances into focus.
accommodation
The life-threatening disease in which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) destroys the immune system and makes victims susceptible to rare, so-called opportunistic, infections that eventually kill them. AIDS is transmitted through sexual activity, drug needle sharing, and from mother to child before or during birth.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
A perspective holding that aging adults will find satisfaction to the extent that they maintain an active lifestyle. Contrast with disengagement theory.
activity theory
The issue in developmental theory centering on whether humans are active contributors to their own development or are passively shaped by forces beyond their control.
activity_passivity issue
In PiagetÍs cognitive developmental theory, a personÍs inborn tendency to adjust to the demands of the environment, consisting of the complementary processes of assimilation and accommodation.
adaptation
The transitional period between childhood and adulthood that begins with puberty and ends when the individual has acquired adult competencies and responsibilities.
adolescence
A characteristic of adolescent thought that involves difficulty differentiating between the personÍs own thoughts and feelings and those of other people; evident in the personal fable and imaginary audience phenomena.
adolescent egocentrism
The rapid increase in physical growth that occurs during adolescence.
adolescent growth spurt
Method of studying genetic and environmental influence that involves determining whether adopted children are more similar to their biological parents (whose genes they share) or adoptive parents (who shaped their environment).
adoption study
A period of increased production of adrenal hormones, starting around 6_8 years of age, that normally precedes increased production of gonadal hormones associated with puberty.
adrenarche
In developmental research, the effects of getting older or of developing. Contrast with cohort effects and time of measurement effects.
age effects
Socially defined age groups or strata, each with different statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities in society.
age grades
Expectations about what people should be doing or how they should behave at different points in the life span.
age norms
A point (around the 24th prenatal week) when a fetus may survive outside the uterus if the brain and respiratory system are well enough developed and if excellent medical care is available.
age of viability
Prejudice against elderly people.
ageism
An orientation toward individual action and achievement that emphasizes traits of dominance, independence, assertiveness, and competitiveness; considered masculine.
agency
Damage to cells in the retina responsible for central vision.
age-related macular degeneration
To most developmentalists, positive, negative, and neutral changes in the mature organism; different from biological aging.
aging
One of the possible variants of a particular gene.
allele
The idea that the letters in printed words represent the sounds in spoken words.
alphabetic principle
A pathological condition of the nervous system that results in an irreversible loss of cognitive capacities; the leading cause of dementia in later life.
AlzheimerÍs disease
A method of extracting amniotic fluid from a pregnant woman so that fetal body cells within the fluid can be tested for chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic defects.
amniocentesis
A watertight membrane that surrounds the developing embryo, regulating its temperature and cushioning it against injuries.
amnion
Lacking any sense of morality; without standards of right and wrong.
amoral
In SternbergÍs triarchic theory, the information-processing skills such as thinking critically and analytically.
analytic component
A genetic female who was exposed to male sex hormones during the prenatal period and therefore developed male like external genitals and some masculine behaviors.
androgenized female
Male hormones that help trigger the adolescent growth spurt and the development of the male sex organs, secondary sex characteristics, and sexual motivation.
androgens
A gender-role orientation in which the person blends both positive masculinestereotyped and positive feminine-stereotyped personality traits.
androgyny
A psychological change that begins in midlife, when parenting responsibilities are over, in which both men and women retain their gender-typed qualities but add to them qualities traditionally associated with the other sex, thus becoming more androgynous.
androgyny shift
The slower and less dramatic male counterpart of menopause, characterized by decreasing levels of testosterone and symptoms that include low libido, fatigue and lack of energy, erection problems, memory problems, and loss of pubic hair.
andropause
Condition in which the top of the neural tube fails to close and the main portion of the brain above the brain stem fails to develop properly.
anencephaly
A life-threatening eating disorder characterized by failure to maintain a normal weight, a strong fear of weight gain, and a distorted body image; literally, ñnervous lack of appetite.î
anorexia nervosa
A lack of sufficient oxygen to the brain that may result in neurological damage or death.
anoxia
Grieving before death for what is happening and for what lies ahead.
anticipatory grief
Vitamins C, E, and similar substances that may increase longevity, although not for long, by inhibiting the free radical activity associated with oxidation and in turn preventing age-related diseases.
antioxidant
A test routinely used to assess a newbornÍs heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, and reflexes immediately after birth and 5 minutes later; used to identify high-risk babies.
Apgar test
A language disorder.
aphasia
A method of conception that involves injecting sperm from a womanÍs partner or from a donor into the uterus.
artificial insemination
An autistic spectrum disorder in which the child has normal or above-average intelligence, has good verbal skills, and wants to establish social relationships but has seriously deficient mindreading and social skills.
Asperger syndrome
PiagetÍs term for the process by which children interpret new experiences in terms of their existing schemata.
assimilation; contrast with accommodation.
Making available to individuals who wish to commit suicide the means by which they may do so, such as when a physician provides a terminally ill patient who wants to die with enough medication to overdose.
assisted suicide
Children who have a higher than normal chance of either short-term or long-term problems because of genetic defects, prenatal hazards, or perinatal damage.
at risk
A strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion and is characterized by affection and a desire to maintain proximity.
attachment
The theory of close relationships developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth and grounded in ethological theory (with psychoanalytic theory and cognitive theory); it says that close emotional bonds such as parent_child attachments are biologically based and contribute to species survival.
attachment theory
Focusing perception and cognition on something in particular.
attention
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A disorder characterized by attentional difficulties, impulsive behavior, and overactive or fidgety behavior.
A restrictive style of parenting combining high demandingness-control and low acceptance_responsiveness in which adults impose many rules, expect strict obedience, and often rely on power tactics rather than explanations to elicit compliance.
authoritarian parenting
A flexible style of parenting combining high demandingness_control and high acceptance_responsiveness in which adults lay down clear rules but also grant a fair amount of autonomy to their children and explain the rationale for their restrictions.
authoritative parenting
A pervasive and severe developmental disorder that begins in infancy and is characterised by such problems as an aversion to social contact, deviant communication or mutism, and repetitive, stereotyped behavior.
autism
Also called pervasive developmental disorders because they affect many aspects of functioning, these disorders, which include autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and others, all involve social and communication problems.
autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)
Memory of everyday events that the individual has experienced.
autobiographical memory
The process by which information processing becomes effortless and highly efficient as a result of continued practice or increased expertise.
automatization
The most mature Piagetian stage of morality in which rules are viewed as agreements between individuals that can be changed through a consensus of those individuals and in which the older child or adolescent pays more attention to intentions than to consequences in judging actions.
autonomous morality; Contrast with heteronomous morality
The capacity to make decisions independently, serve as oneÍs own source of emotional strength, and otherwise manage life tasks without being overdependent on other people; an important developmental task of adolescence.
autonomy
The psychosocial conflict in which toddlers attempt to demonstrate their independence from and control over other people; second of EriksonÍs stages.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
An insecure infant care-giver bond or other intimate relationship characterised by little separation anxiety and a tendency to avoid or ignore the attachment object upon reunion.
avoidant attachment
An early form of vocalization that appears between 4 and 6 months of age and involves repeating consonant_vowel combinations such as ñbabaî or ñdadada.î
babbling
Carefully recorded observations of the growth and development of children by their parents over a period; the first scientific investigations of development.
baby biographies
The huge generation of people born between 1946 (the close of World War II) and 1964.
baby boom generation
Standardized test to measure the mental, motor, and behavioral progress of infants and young children.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
The scientific study of the extent to which genetic and environmental differences among individuals are responsible for differences among them in traits such as intelligence and personality.
behavioral genetics
A temperamental characteristic reflecting a personÍs tendency to withdraw from unfamiliar people and situations.
behavioral inhibition
A school of thinking in psychology that holds that conclusions about human development should be based on controlled observations of overt behavior rather than on speculation about unconscious motives or other unobservable phenomena; the philosophical underpinning of early theories of learning.
behaviorism
The theory of mind reflecting an understanding that peopleÍs desires and beliefs guide their behavior and that their beliefs are not always an accurate reflection of reality; evident by age 4.
belief_desire psychology; Contrast with desire psychology
A state of loss that provides the occasion for grief and mourning.
bereavement
A toxic protein that injures neurons and is located in the senile plaques associated with AlzheimerÍs disease.
beta-amyloid
The five major dimensions used to characterize peopleÍs personalities: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
Big Five (OCEAN)
The phenomenon in which a studentÍs academic self-concept and performance are likely to be more positive in an academically unselective school than in a highly selective one with many high-achieving students.
big-fish_little-pond effect
BronfenbrennerÍs model of development that emphasizes the roles of both nature and nurture as the developing person interacts with a series of environmental systems (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem).
bioecological model
The deterioration of organisms that leads inevitably to their death.
biological aging
The physical characteristics that define male and female.
biological sex
Money and EhrhardtÍs theory of gender-role development that focuses on how biological events influence the development of boys and girls and how early biological developments influence how society reacts to children.
biosocial theory
A hollow sphere of about 100 to 150 cells that the zygote forms by rapid cell division as it moves through the fallopian tube.
blastocyst
An indicator of body fat calculated from a personÍs height and weight.
body mass index (BMI)
As distinguished from attachment, a more biologically-based process in which parent and infant form a connection through contact in the first hours after birth when both are highly alert.
bonding
A delivery in which the fetus emerges feet first or buttocks first rather than head first.
breech presentation
A life-threatening eating disorder characterized by recurrent eating binges followed by purging activities such as vomiting.
bulimia nervosa
Repeatedly inflicting harm through words or actions on weaker peers who cannot or do not defend themselves.
bullying
A technique demonstrated to extend the life span of laboratory animals involving a highly nutritious but severely calorie restricted diet.
caloric restriction
The psychological distress associated with providing care for someone with physical, cognitive, or both types of impairment.
caregiver burden
In genetics, individuals who possesses a recessive gene associated with a disease and who, although they do not have the disease, can transmit the gene for it to offspring.
carrier
Transactional, multifactor model of substance use that envisions a chain of influences starting with a child with a difficult temperament born into troubled family and ending with involvement in a deviant adolescent peer group.
cascade model of substance use
An in-depth examination of an individual (or a small number of individuals), typically carried out by compiling and analyzing information from a variety of sources such as observing, testing, and interviewing the person or people who know the individual.
case study
A pathologic condition of the eye involving opacification (clouding) of the lens that can impair vision or cause blindness.
cataracts
A phenomenon in which children who have experienced growth deficits will grow rapidly and catch up to the growth trajectory they are genetically programmed to follow.
catch-up growth
A personÍs classification of the self along socially significant dimensions such as age and sex.
categorical self
An inherited digestive problem in which gluten (the proteins found in all wheat products) triggers an immune response that damages a personÍs small intestine.
celiac disease
An individual who lives to be 100 years of age.
centenarian
In PiagetÍs theory, the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a problem when two or more aspects are relevant.
centration
The principle that growth proceeds from the head (cephalic region) to the tail (caudal region).
cephalocaudal principle
A neurological disability caused by anoxia that is associated with difficulty controlling muscle movements.
cerebral palsy
A surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the motherÍs abdomen and uterus so that the baby can be removed through the abdomen.
cesarean section
Compared to traits, more situation-specific and changeable aspects of personality; ways in which people adapt to their roles and environments, including motives, goals, plans, schemas, selfconceptions, stage-specific concerns, and coping mechanisms.
characteristic adaptations
Mistreating or harming a child physically, emotionally, or sexually, as distinguished from another form of child maltreatment, neglect of the childÍs basic needs.
child abuse
A model of family influence in which children are believed to influence their parents rather than vice versa.
child effects model
A broad term for inadequate care or harmful treatment of a child; encompasses both child abuse and child neglect.
child maltreatment
A household climate that includes low income along with low levels of responsive to childrenÍs basic needs.
child poverty
Speech used by adults speaking with young children; it involves short, simple sentences spoken slowly and in a high pitched voice, often with much repetition and with exaggerated emphasis on key words.
child-directed speech
A lack of memory for the early years of a personÍs life.
childhood amnesia
A membrane that surrounds the amnion and becomes attached to the uterine lining to gather nourishment for the embryo.
chorion
An alternative to amniocentesis in which a catheter is inserted through the cervix to withdraw fetal cells from the chorion for prenatal testing to detect genetic defects.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
A threadlike structure made up of genes; in humans, there are 46 chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell.
chromosome
Conditions in which a child has too few, too many, or incomplete chromosomes because of errors in the formation of sperm or ova.
chromosome abnormalities
In BronfenbrennerÍs bioecological approach, the system that captures the way changes in environmental systems, such as social trends and life events, are patterned over a personÍs lifetime.
chronosystem
According to neo-Freudian Harry Stack Sullivan, a close friendship in childhood that provides emotional support and teaches children how to participate in intimate relationships.
chumship
The logical understanding that parts or subclasses are included in the whole class and that the whole is therefore greater than any of its parts.
class inclusion
A type of learning in which a stimulus that initially had no effect on the individual comes to elicit a response because of its association with a stimulus that already elicits the response.
classical conditioning
An unstandardized interviewing procedure used by Piaget in which a childÍs response to each successive question (or problem) determines what the investigator will ask next.
clinical method
A small friendship group that interacts frequently. See crowd.
clique
A surgically implanted amplification device that stimulates the auditory nerve to provide the sensation of hearing to a deaf individual.
cochlear implant
In genetics, an instance in which two different but equally powerful genes produce a phenotype in which both genes are expressed.
codominance
A home in which family members are locked in power struggles, each trying to control the other through aggressive tactics such as threatening, yelling, and hitting.
coercive family environment
The activity of knowing and the processes through which knowledge is acquired (for example, attending, perceiving, remembering, and thinking).
cognition
Well-established psychotherapy approach that involves identifying and changing distorted thinking and maladaptive emotions and behavior associated with it.
cognitive behavioral therapy
The extra brain power or cognitive capacity that some people can fall back on as aging and diseases such as AlzheimerÍs begin to take a toll on brain functioning.
cognitive reserve
When two single adults live together as an unmarried couple.
cohabitation
A group of people born at the same time; a particular generation of people.
cohort
In cross-sectional research, the effects on findings that the different age groups (cohorts) being compared were born at different times and had different formative experiences.
cohort effects; Contrast with age effects and time of measurement effects.
A culture in which people define themselves in terms of group memberships, give group goals higher priority than personal goals, and socialize children to seek group harmony.
collectivist culture; Contrast with individualistic culture.
An orientation that emphasizes the well-being of others and includes traits of emotionality and sensitivity to others; considered feminine.
communality
The co-occurrence of two or more psychiatric conditions in the same individual.
comorbidity
In SternbergÍs triangular theory of love, affectionate love characterized by high intimacy and commitment but low passion.
companionate love
An emotional response to a death that is unusually prolonged or intense and that impairs functioning.
complicated grief; pathological grief
The moment of fertilization, when a sperm penetrates an ovum, forming a zygote.
conception
The percentage of cases in which a particular attribute is present for both members of a pair of people (for example, twins) if it is present for one member.
concordance rate
PiagetÍs third stage of cognitive development, lasting from about age 7 to age 11, when children are acquiring logical operations and can reason effectively about real objects and experiences.
concrete operations stage
A learned response to a stimulus that was not originally capable of producing the response.
conditioned response (CR)
An initially neutral stimulus that elicits a particular response after it is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that always elicits the response.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
A persistent pattern of behavior in which a child or adolescent violates the rights of others or age-appropriate societal norms, as through fighting, bullying, and cruelty.
conduct disorder
A spouse, relative, or friend to whom a person feels emotionally close and with whom that person can share thoughts and feelings.
confidant
Defects that are present at birth and are caused by genetic factors, prenatal events, or both.
congenital malformations
The recognition that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in some superficial way.
conservation
In information processing, the processing and organizing of information into a form suitable for long-term storage.
consolidation
Children who are small for age (at or below the 5th percentile on a growth chart) and late entering puberty, but growing at a normal or near-normal pace.
constitutional growth delay
In the Twenty Questions task and similar hypothesis-testing tasks, questions that rule out more than one answer to narrow the field of possible choices rather than asking about only one hypothesis at a time.
constraint-seeking questions
The position taken by Piaget and others that humans actively create their own understandings of the world from their experiences, as opposed to being born with innate ideas or being programmed by the environment.
constructivism
In SternbergÍs triangular theory of love, love with high levels of all three components of love: passion, intimacy, and decision/commitment.
consummate love
The pleasurable tactile sensations provided by a parent or a soft, terry cloth mother substitute; believed to foster attachments in infant monkeys and possibly humans.
contact comfort
Maintenance of attachment to a loved one after the personÍs death through reminiscence, use of the personÍs possessions, consultation with the deceased, and the like.
continuing bond
The debate among theorists about whether human development is best characterized as gradual and continuous or abrupt and stagelike.
continuity_discontinuity issue
The amount of light-dark transition or boundary area in a visual stimulus.
contour
KohlbergÍs term for the third and fourth stages of moral reasoning in which societal values are internalized and judgments are based on a desire to gain approval or uphold law and social order.
conventional morality
Thinking that involves ñconvergingî on the one best answer to a problem; what IQ tests measure.
convergent thinking; Contrast with divergent thinking.
An early form of vocalization that involves repeating vowel-like sounds.
cooing
Procedures that involve assigning students, usually of different races or ability levels, to work teams that are reinforced for performing well as teams and that encourage cooperation among teammates.
cooperative learning
During PiagetÍs sensorimotor period, the infantÍs combining of actions to solve problems, using one scheme as a means to an end, as in batting aside a barrier in order to grasp a toy.
coordination of secondary schemes
The extent and manner in which the two parents coordinate their parenting and function as a team in relation to their children.
coparenting
A measure, ranging from 11.00 to 21.00, of the extent to which two variables or attributes are systematically related to each other in either a positive or a negative way.
correlation coefficient
A research technique that involves determining whether two or more variables are related. It cannot indicate that one thing caused another, but it can suggest that a causal relationship exists or allow us to predict one characteristic from our knowledge of another.
correlational method
Excessive discussion and analysis of personal problems with a close friend.
co-rumination
Sympathetic pregnancy, or the experiencing by fathers of some of the same physiological symptoms their pregnant partners experience (for example, bloating, weight gain, fatigue, insomnia, and nausea).
couvade
In SternbergÍs triarchic theory, the aspect of intelligence that varies with experience on a task.
creative component
The ability to produce novel responses or works.
creativity
A defined period in the development of an organism when it is particularly sensitive to certain environmental influences; outside this period, the same influences will have far less effect.
critical period
A process in which genetic material is exchanged between pairs of chromosomes during meiosis.
crossing over
The ability to use one sensory modality to identify a stimulus or a pattern of stimuli already familiar through another modality.
cross-modal perception
A developmental research design in which different age groups are studied at the same point and compared.
cross-sectional design
A network of heterosexual cliques that forms during adolescence and facilitates mixed-sex social activities.
crowd; See clique.
Those aspects of intellectual functioning that involve using knowledge acquired through experience.
crystallized intelligence; contrast with fluid intelligence.
Recollecting objects, events, or experiences in response to a hint or cue. Contrast with pure recall memory and recognition memory.
cued recall memory
Change in a species achieved not through biological evolution but through learning and passing on from one generation to the next new ways of adapting to the environment.
cultural evolution
A system of meanings shared by a population of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
culture
The situation that arises in testing when one cultural or subcultural group is more familiar with test items than another group and therefore has an unfair advantage.
culture bias
The notion that impoverished environments inhibit intellectual growth and that these inhibiting effects accumulate over time.
cumulative-deficit hypothesis
Theories that emphasize several haphazard processes that cause cells and organ systems to deteriorate. Contrast with programmed theories of aging.
damage theories of aging
The process by which the eyes become more sensitive to light over time as they remain in the dark.
dark adaptation
The ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a problem at one time.
decentration
To separate the demands of a task at hand from prior beliefs and knowledge.
decontextualize
Mechanisms used by the ego to defend itself against anxiety caused by conflict between the idÍs impulses and social demands.
defense mechanisms
The ability to imitate a novel act after a delay.
deferred imitation
A clouding of consciousness characterized by alternating periods of disorientation and coherence.
delirium
A dimension of parenting reflecting the extent to which parents as opposed to children exert control over decisions and set and enforce rules.
demandingness_control; also called permissiveness-restrictiveness.
A progressive loss of cognitive capacities such as memory and judgment that affects some aging individuals and that has a variety of causes.
dementia
A defense mechanism in which anxiety-provoking thoughts are kept out of, or isolated from, conscious awareness.
denial
The aspect of behavior measured in an experiment and assumed to be under the control of, or dependent on, the independent variable.
dependent variable
The earliest theory of mind: an understanding that desires guide behavior (for example, that people seek things they like and avoid things they hate).
desire psychology; Contrast with belief_desire psychology.
Systematic changes in the individual occurring between conception and death; such changes can be positive, negative, or neutral.
development
The age at which half of a large group of infants or children master a skill or display a behavior; the average age for achieving a milestone in development.
developmental norm
A field of study concerned with the origins and course of maladaptive or psychopathological behavior.
developmental psychopathology
A numerical measure of an infantÍs performance on a developmental test relative to the performance of other infants the same age.
developmental quotient (DQ)
A distinct phase within a larger sequence of development; a period characterized by a particular set of abilities, motives, behaviors, or emotions that occur together and form a coherent pattern.
developmental stage
A metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of glucose or sugar in the blood leading to symptoms of thirst, excessive urination, fatigue, and problems involving eyes, kidneys, and other organs.
diabetes
An advanced form of thought that involves detecting paradoxes and inconsistencies among ideas and trying to reconcile them.
dialectical thinking
The view that psychopathology results from the interaction of a personÍs predisposition to psychological problems and the experience of stressful events.
diathesis_stress model
In brain development, the progressive diversification of cells that results in their taking on different characteristics and functions.
differentiation
Characteristic mode of response in which the individual is irregular in habits and adapts slowly, often with vigorous protest, to changes in routine or new experiences. Contrast with easy temperament and slow-to-warm-up temperament.
difficult temperament
Identity status characterizing individuals who have not questioned who they are and have not committed themselves to an identity.
diffusion status
Grief that is not fully recognized or appreciated by other people and therefore may not receive much sympathy and support, as in the loss of a gay partner.
disenfranchised grief
A perspective that holds that successful aging involves a mutually satisfying withdrawal of the aging individual and society from each other.
disengagement theory; contrast with activity theory
A disturbed attachment pattern observed in socially deprived children that involves indiscriminate friendliness toward both parents and strangers, lack of appropriate wariness of strangers, and difficulty regulating emotions well enough to participate in real, reciprocal social interactions.
disinhibited attachment
An insecure infant_caregiver bond, common among abused children, that combines features of the resistant and avoidant attachment styles and is characterized by the infantÍs dazed response to reunion and confusion about whether to approach or avoid the caregiver.
disorganized_disoriented attachment
Relatively enduring dimensions or qualities of personality along which people differ (for example, extraversion, aloofness).
dispositional traits
Thinking that requires coming up with a variety of ideas or solutions to a problem when there is no one right answer.
divergent thinking; contrast with convergent thinking
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the double helix molecule whose chemical code makes up chromosomes and serves as our genetic endowment; it is made up of sequences of the chemicals (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), and T (thymine).
DNA
A relatively powerful gene that is expressed phenotypically and masks the effect of a less-powerful recessive gene.
dominant gene
The view that sexual behavior appropriate for members of one gender is inappropriate for members of the other.
double standard
A chromosomal abnormality in which the child has inherited an extra 21st chromosome and is, as a result, mentally retarded.
Down syndrome; also called trisomy 21
The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which spells out defining features and symptoms for the range of psychological disorders.
DSM-IV
A theory of coping with bereavement in which the bereaved oscillate between loss-oriented coping in which they deal with their emotions, restoration-oriented coping in which they try to manage practical tasks and reorganize their lives, and periods of respite from coping.
dual process model of bereavement
The view that both deliberate thought and more automatic emotion-based intuitions can inform decisions about moral issues and motivate behavior.
dual process model of morality
A perspective on development applied to motor development which proposes that more sophisticated patterns of motor behavior emerge over time through a ñself-organizingî process in which children modify their motor behavior in adaptive ways on the basis of the sensory feedback they receive when they try different movements.
dynamic systems theory
Serious difficulties learning to read in children who have normal intellectual ability and no sensory impairments or emotional difficulties that could account for their learning problems.
dyslexia
Characteristic mode of response in which the individual is even-tempered, content, and open and adaptable to new experiences.
easy temperament; contrast with difficult temperament and slow-to-warm-up temperament
The repetition of sounds, such as when an autistic child parrots what someone else says.
echolalia
In the context of science, an individual who recognizes that no single theory can explain everything but that each has something to contribute to our understanding.
eclectic
Dimension of temperament pertaining to being able to sustain attention, control oneÍs behavior, and regulate oneÍs emotions (as opposed to unable to regulate oneÍs arousal and stay calm and focused).
effortful control; see negative affectivity and surgency/extraversion
Psychoanalytic term for the rational component of the personality.
ego
The tendency to view the world from the personÍs own perspective and fail to recognize that others may have different points of view.
egocentrism
A strategy for remembering that involves adding something to or creating meaningful links between the bits of information the person is trying to retain.
elaboration
Female version of the Oedipus complex, in which a 4 to 6 year-old girl is said to envy her father for possessing a penis and would choose him as a sex object in the hope of sharing this valuable organ that she lacks.
Electra complex
Second phase of prenatal development, lasting from the third through the eighth prenatal week, during which the major organs and anatomical structures begin to develop.
embryonic period
The developmental precursors of reading skills in young children, including knowledge, skills, and attributes that will facilitate the acquisition of reading competence.
emergent literacy
Newly identified period of the life span extending from about age 18 to age 25, when young people are neither adolescents nor adults and are exploring their identities, careers, and relationships.
emerging adulthood
The processes involved in initiating, maintaining, and altering emotional responses.
emotion regulation
The vicarious experiencing of another personÍs feelings.
empathy
The term used to describe the family after the last child departs the household.
empty nest
The first step in learning and remembering something, it is the process of getting information into the information-processing system, or learning it, and organizing it in a form suitable for storing.
encoding
A type of gland that secretes chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream. Endocrine glands play critical roles in stimulating growth and regulating bodily functions.
endocrine gland
Events or conditions outside the person that are presumed to influence and be influenced by the individual.
environment
The process through which nature and nurture, genes and environment, jointly bring forth development in ways that are difficult to predict at the outset, according to GottliebÍs epigenetic psychobiological systems perspective.
epigenesis; in a more specific sense, epigenetic effects refer to ways in which environmental influences alter gene expression
Gilbert GottliebÍs view that development is the product of interacting biological and environmental forces that form a larger, dynamic system, both over the course of evolution and during the individualÍs life.
epigenetic psychobiological systems perspective
A type of explicit memory consisting of specific episodes that one has experienced.
episodic memory
In PiagetÍs theory, the process of seeking a state of mental stability in which our thoughts (schemes) are consistent with the information we receive from the external world.
equilibration
A balance of contributions and gains in a social relationship that results in neither partner feeling over or underbenefited.
equity
The female hormone responsible for the development of the breasts, the female sex organs, and secondary sex characteristics and for the beginning of menstrual cycles.
estrogen
A sense of personal identification with the individualÍs ethnic group and its values and cultural traditions.
ethnic identity
A personÍs classification in or affiliation with a group based on common heritage or traditions.
ethnicity
The belief that oneÍs own cultural or ethnic group is superior to others.
ethnocentrism
A discipline and theoretical perspective that focuses on the evolved behavior of different species in their natural environments.
ethology
Literally, ñgood deathî; specifically, hastening, either actively or passively, the death of someone suffering from an incurable illness or injury.
euthanasia
Grounding what they do in research and ensuring that the curricula and treatments they provide have been demonstrated to be effective.
evidence-based practice
The application of evolutionary theory and its concept of natural selection to understanding why humans think and behave as they do.
evolutionary psychology
Processes that direct and monitor the selection, organization, manipulation, and interpretation of information in the information-processing system, including executive functions.
executive control processes
The planning and organizational functions that reside in the prefrontal cortex of the brain.
executive functions
In BronfenbrennerÍs bioecological approach, settings not experienced directly by individuals still influence their development (for example, effects of events at a parentÍs workplace on childrenÍs development).
exosystem
A conversational tactic used by adults in speaking to young children in which they respond to a childÍs utterance with a more grammatically complete expression of the same thought.
expansion
A research strategy in which the investigator manipulates or alters some aspect of a personÍs environment to measure its effect on the individualÍs behavior or development.
experiment
The holding of all other factors besides the independent variable in an experiment constant so that any changes in the dependent variable can be said to be caused by the manipulation of the independent variable.
experimental control
Memory that involves consciously recollecting the past.
explicit memory; contrast with implicit memory
A family unit composed of parents and children living with other kin such as grandparents, aunts and uncles, cousins, or a combination of these. Compare with nuclear family.
extended family household
Childhood behavioral problem that involves ñundercontrolledî behavior such as aggression or acting out difficulties that disturb other people.
externalizing problem; contrast with internalizing problem
The gradual weakening and disappearance of a learned response when it is no longer reinforced.
extinction
Baron-CohenÍs theory that individuals with autism have brains that are more masculine, or skilled at systemizing, than feminine, or skilled at empathizing.
extreme male brain hypothesis
Remembering and reporting events the person has witnessed or experienced.
eyewitness memory
A condition observed in infants who, because of either physical causes or emotional deprivation, are characterized by stunted growth, weight loss, and delays in cognitive and socioemotional development.
failure to thrive
A research paradigm used to assess an important aspect of a theory of mind, mainly the understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs and be influenced by them.
false belief task
The sequence of changes in family composition, roles, and relationships that occurs from the time people marry until they die.
family life cycle
The conceptualization of the family as a whole consisting of interrelated parts, each of which affects and is affected by every other part, and each of which contributes to the functioning of the whole.
family systems theory
A group of symptoms commonly observed in the offspring of mothers who use alcohol heavily during pregnancy, including a small head, widely spaced eyes, and mental retardation.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
The third phase of prenatal development, lasting from the ninth prenatal week until birth; during this period, the major organ systems begin to function effectively and the fetus grows rapidly.
fetal period
Skills that involve precise movements of the hands and fingers or feet and toes.
fine motor skills; contrast with gross motor skills
In psychoanalytic theory, a defense mechanism in which development is arrested and part of the libido remains tied to an early stage of development.
fixation
Aspects of intelligence that involve actively thinking and reasoning to solve novel problems.
fluid intelligence; contrast with crystallized intelligence
The rise in average IQ scores over the 20th century.
Flynn effect
An identity status characterising individuals who appear to have committed themselves to a life direction but who have adopted an identity prematurely, without much thought.
foreclosure status
PiagetÍs fourth and final stage of cognitive development (from age 11 or 12), when the individual begins to think more rationally and systematically about abstract concepts and hypothetical ideas.
formal operations stage
A chromosome abnormality in which one arm of the X chromosome is only barely connected to the rest of the chromosome; the most common hereditary cause of mental retardation.
fragile X syndrome
Twins who are not identical and who result when a mother releases two ova at roughly the same time and each is fertilized by a different sperm.
fraternal twins
Chemically unstable byproducts of metabolism that have an extra electron and react with other molecules to produce toxic substances that damage cells and contribute to aging.
free radicals
An analysis of the semantic relations (meanings such as naming and locating) that children express in their earliest sentences.
functional grammar
A brain-scanning technique that uses magnetic forces to measure the increase in blood flow to an area of the brain that occurs when that brain area is active. By having children and adults perform cognitive tasks while lying very still in an fMRI scanner, researchers can determine which parts of the brain are involved in particular cognitive activities.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
The view that verbatim and general or gistlike accounts of an event are stored separately in memory.
fuzzy-trace theory
A combination of all those features that a society associates with or considers appropriate for being a man and woman.
gender
The stage of gender typing in which children realize that their sex is stable across situations or despite changes in activities or appearance.
gender consistency
A solid understanding of oneself as male-female, man-woman.
gender constancy
IndividualsÍ basic awareness that they are either a male or a female.
gender identity
A magnification of differences between males and females during adolescence associated with increased pressure to conform to traditional gender roles.
gender intensification
A pattern of behaviors and traits that defines how to act the part of a female or a male in a particular society.
gender role
Organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and females that guide information processing.
gender schema (plural: schemata)
The formation of separate boysÍ and girlsÍ peer groups during childhood.
gender segregation
The hypothesis that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables.
gender similarities hypothesis
The stage of gender typing in which children realize that their sex remains the same over time.
gender stability
Overgeneralized and largely inaccurate beliefs about what males and females are like.
gender stereotypes
The process by which children become aware of their gender and acquire the motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate for members of their biological sex.
gender typing
A functional unit of heredity made up of DNA and transmitted from generation to generation.
gene
The activation of particular genes in particular cells of the body at particular times in life.
gene expression
Interventions that involve substituting normal genes for the genes associated with a disease or disorder; otherwise altering a personÍs genetic makeup.
gene therapy
A systematic interrelationship between an individualÍs genes and that individualÍs environment; ways in which genes influence the kind of home environment provided by parents (passive gene_ environment correlation), the social reactions to the individual (evocative gene_environment correlation), and the types of experiences the individual seeks (active gene_environment correlation).
gene_environment correlation
The phenomenon in which the effects of peopleÍs genes depend on the kind of environment they experience and in which the effects of the environment depend on their genetic endowment.
gene_environment interaction
Representations that people create over time of the typical sequence of actions related to an event.
general event representation; also called ñscripts.î
The psychosocial conflict in which middle-aged adults must gain the sense that they have produced something that will outlive them and genuinely care for younger generations to avoid self-preoccupation.
generativity versus stagnation; seventh of EriksonÍs stages
A service designed to inform people about genetic conditions they or their unborn children are at risk of inheriting.
genetic counseling
The genetic endowment that an individual inherits.
genotype; contrast with phenotype
First phase of prenatal development, lasting about 2 weeks from conception until the developing organism becomes attached to the wall of the uterus.
germinal period
The study of aging and old age.
gerontology
The possession of unusually high general intellectual potential or of special abilities in such areas as creativity, mathematics, or the arts.
giftedness
A condition in which increased fluid pressure in the eye damages the optic nerve and causes progressive loss of peripheral vision and ultimately blindness.
glaucoma
In BowlbyÍs attachment theory, the most mature phase of attachment in which parent and child accommodate to each otherÍs needs and the child becomes more independent.
goal-corrected partnership
The extent to which the childÍs temperament and the demands of the childÍs social environment are compatible or mesh, according to Thomas and Chess; more generally, a good match between person and environment.
goodness of fit
The emotional response to loss. Contrast with mourning.
grief
The view commonly held, but now challenged, that to cope adaptively with death bereaved people must confront their loss, experience painful emotions, work through these emotions, and move toward a detachment from the deceased.
grief work perspective
Skills that involve large muscles and whole body or limb movements (for example, kicking the legs or drawing large circles).
gross motor skills; contrast with fine motor skills.
The physical changes that occur from conception to maturity.
growth
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates childhood physical growth and the adolescent growth spurt.
growth hormone
A process in which children learn by actively participating in culturally relevant activities with the aid and support of their parents and other knowledgeable individuals.
guided participation
A simple form of learning that involves learning not to respond to a repeated stimulus; learning to be bored by the familiar.
habituation
The estimate that human cells can double only 50 times, plus or minus 10, and then will die.
Hayflick limit
An attribution style in which someone tends to avoid challenges and to cease trying„to give up„when they experience failure, based on the belief that they can do little to improve.
helpless orientation
A deficiency in the bloodÍs ability to clot. It is more common among males than females because it is associated with a sex-linked gene on the X chromosome.
hemophilia
The amount of variability in a population on some trait dimension that is attributable to genetic differences among those individuals.
heritability
A term meaning subject to authority and referring to the childhood beliefs that rules are handed down by authority figures and are sacred and unalterable and that wrongness should be judged on the basis of consequences rather than intentions; typical of children ages 6 to 10, according to Piaget.
heteronomous morality; contrast with autonomous morality
A single-word utterance used by an infant that represents an entire sentenceÍs worth of meaning.
holophrase
A widely used instrument that allows an observer to determine how intellectually stimulating or impoverished a home environment is.
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory
Mate selection or marriage on the basis of similarity in demographic and personal characteristics.
homogamy
A term used by Piaget to characterize that different cognitive skills related to the same stage of cognitive development emerge at different times.
horizontal d_calage
Taking estrogen and progestin to compensate for hormone loss because of menopause in women.
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
A program that supports dying persons and their families through a philosophy of caring rather than curing, either in a facility or at home.
hospice
A sudden experience of warmth and sweating, often followed by a cold shiver, that occurs in a menopausal woman.
hot flash
Ways in which humans deliberately exercise cognitive control over their environments and lives, according to Bandura.
human agency
A massive, government-sponsored effort to decipher the human genetic code.
Human Genome Project
A genetic disease caused by a single, dominant gene that strikes in middle age to produce a deterioration of physical and mental abilities and premature death.
HuntingtonÍs disease
See attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
hyperactivity
A theoretical prediction about what will hold true if we observe a phenomenon.
hypothesis
A form of problem solving in which a person starts with general or abstract ideas and deduces or traces their specific implications; ñif_thenî thinking.
hypothetical-deductive reasoning
A psychoanalytic term for the inborn component of the personality that is driven by the instincts or selfish urges.
id
Idealized expectations of what oneÍs attributes and personality should be like.
ideal self
Monozygotic twins who develop from a single zygote that later divides to form two genetically identical individuals.
identical twins
FreudÍs term for the individualÍs tendency to emulate, or adopt the attitudes and behaviors of, another person, particularly the same-sex parent.
identification
A self-definition or sense of who one is, where one is going, and how one fits into society.
identity
An identity status characterizing individuals who have carefully thought through identity issues and made commitments or resolved their identity issues.
identity achievement status
The psychosocial conflict in which adolescents must form a coherent self-definition or remain confused about their life directions; fifth of EriksonÍs stages.
identity versus role confusion
A form of adolescent egocentrism that involves confusing oneÍs own thoughts with the thoughts of a hypothesized audience for behavior and concluding that others share these preoccupations.
imaginary audience
A play companion invented by a child in the preoperational stage who has developed the capacity for symbolic thought.
imaginary companion
Memory that occurs unintentionally and without consciousness or awareness.
implicit memory; Contrast with explicit memory.
An innate form of learning in which the young of certain species will follow and become attached to moving objects (usually their mothers) during a critical period early in life.
imprinting
The educational practice of integrating handicapped students into regular classrooms rather than placing them in segregated special education classes
inclusion; also called mainstreaming
A condition in which a stronger gene fails to mask all the effects of a weaker partner gene; a phenotype results that is similar but not identical to the effect of the stronger gene.
incomplete dominance
The aspect of the environment that a researcher deliberately changes or manipulates in an experiment to see its effect on behavior; a causal variable.
independent variable; Contrast with dependent variable
The instance in which the relationship between two individuals in a family is modified by the behavior or attitudes of a third family member.
indirect effect
A culture in which individuals define themselves as individuals and put their own goals ahead of their groupÍs goals, and one in which children are socialized to be independent and self-reliant.
individualistic culture; Contrast with collectivist culture
A form of discipline that involves explaining why a childÍs behavior is wrong and should be changed by emphasizing its effects on other people.
induction
The psychosocial conflict in which school-aged children must master important cognitive and social skills or feel incompetent; fourth of EriksonÍs stages.
industry versus inferiority
A coupleÍs inability to get pregnant after a year of trying to do so.
infertility
An approach to cognition that emphasizes the fundamental mental processes involved in attention, perception, memory, and decision making.
information-processing approach
The psychosocial conflict in which preschool children must learn to initiate new activities and pursue bold plans or become self-critical; third of EriksonÍs stages.
initiative versus guilt
An inborn biological force assumed to motivate a particular response or class of responses.
instinct
Teaching children of different racial/ethnic backgrounds in the same classroom.
integration
The psychosocial conflict in which elderly adults attempt to find a sense of meaning in their lives and to accept the inevitability of death; eighth of EriksonÍs stages.
integrity versus despair
Significantly below-average intellectual functioning with limitations in areas of adaptive behavior such as self-care and social skills, originating before age 18 (previously known as mental retardation).
intellectual disability
A numerical measure of a personÍs performance on an intelligence test relative to the performance of other examinees of the same age, typically with a score of 100 defined as average.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
The passing down from generation to generation of parenting styles, abusive or otherwise.
intergenerational transmission of parenting
In attachment theory, cognitive representation of self and other that children construct from their interactions with caregivers and that shape their expectations about relationships.
internal working model
Childhood behavioral problem that represents an ñovercontrolledî pattern of coping with difficulties and is expressed in anxiety, depression, and other forms of inner distress. Contrast with externalizing problem.
internalizing problem
The psychosocial conflict in which young adults must commit themselves to a shared identity with another person or remain aloof and unconnected to others; sixth of EriksonÍs stages.
intimacy versus isolation
Organized systems of knowledge, believed to be innate, that allow children to make sense of the world in areas such as physics and psychology.
intuitive theories
Procedure in which several eggs are removed from a womanÍs ovary, fertilized by sperm in a petri dish in the laboratory, then transferred to the womanÍs uterus in hopes that one will implant on the wall of the uterus.
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
The act of looking at the same object at the same time with someone else; a way in which infants share perceptual experiences with their caregivers.
joint attention
Law-breaking by a minor.
juvenile delinquency
Holding a young infant skin-to-skin on a parentÍs chest; often used with premature babies to help maintain body temperature, heart rate, and oxygen levels in the blood.
kangaroo care
A chromosomal portrait created by staining chromosomes, photographing them under a high-power microscope, and arranging them into a predetermined pattern.
karyotype
A sex chromosome abnormality in which males inherit two or more X chromosomes (XXY or XXXY); these males fail to develop secondary sex characteristics and often show deficiencies on tests of verbal abilities.
Klinefelter syndrome
A personÍs existing information about a content area, significant for its influence on how well that individual can learn and remember.
knowledge base
Prepared childbirth in which parents attend classes and learn mental exercises and relaxation techniques to ease delivery.
Lamaze method
A symbolic system in which a limited number of signals can be combined according to rules to produce an infinite number of messages.
language
A set of linguistic processing skills that nativists believe to be innate; presumably the LAD enables a child to infer the rules governing othersÍ speech and then use these rules to produce language.
language acquisition device (LAD)
Learning occurs but is not evident in behavior; children can learn from observation even though they do not imitate (perform) the learned responses.
latent learning
The specialization of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex of the brain.
lateralization
A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) that results from a personÍs experiences or practice.
learning
A goal adopted by learners in which they seek to learn new things so that they can improve their abilities. Contrast with performance goal.
learning goal
FreudÍs term for the biological energy of the sex instinct.
libido
The average number of years a newborn baby can be expected to live; now almost 78 years in the United States.
life expectancy
Process in which elderly adults reflect on unresolved conflicts of the past and evaluate their lives; it may contribute to a sense of integrity and readiness for death.
life review
A perspective that views development as a lifelong, multidirectional process that involves gain and loss, is characterized by considerable plasticity, is shaped by its historical-cultural context, has many causes, and is best viewed from a multidisciplinary perspective.
life-span perspective
The concept that the development of the individual is intertwined with the development of other family members.
linked lives
The ability to use printed information to function in society, achieve goals, and develop potential.
literacy
A document in which people state in advance that they do not wish to have extraordinary medical procedures applied if they are hopelessly ill.
living will
The process of moving from one location to another.
locomotion
A developmental research design in which one group of subjects is studied repeatedly over months or years.
longitudinal design
Memory store in which information that has been examined and interpreted is stored relatively permanently.
long-term memory
A form of discipline that involves withholding attention, affection, or approval after a child misbehaves.
love withdrawal
A weight at birth of less than 2500 grams, or 5 _ pounds, associated with increased risk of developmental problems.
low birth weight (LBW)
In BronfenbrennerÍs bioecological approach, the larger cultural or subcultural context of development.
macrosystem
An affective or mood disorder characterized by at least one episode of feeling profoundly sad and hopeless, losing interest in almost all activities, or both.
major depressive disorder
In achievement situations, aiming to learn new things in order to learn or improve ability; contrast with performance goal.
mastery (learning) goal
An intrinsic motive to master and control the environment evident early in infancy.
mastery motivation
A tendency to thrive on challenges and persist in the face of failure because of healthy attributions that lead to the belief that increased effort will pay off.
mastery orientation
A noninvasive method of prenatal diagnosis involving testing for substances in maternal blood; more recently, analysis of fetal cells that have slipped through the placenta into the motherÍs blood.
maternal blood sampling
Developmental changes that are biologically programmed by genes rather than caused primarily by learning, injury, illness, or some other life experience.
maturation
A ceiling on the number of years that any member of a species lives; 120 years for humans.
maximum life span
The initial stage of mastery of memory strategies in which children cannot spontaneously use or benefit from strategies even if they are taught to use them.
mediation deficiency
The process in which a germ cell divides, producing sperm or ova, each containing half of the parent cellÍs original complement of chromosomes.
meiosis; In humans, the products of meiosis normally contain 23 chromosomes
The ability to store and later retrieve information about past events.
memory
A femaleÍs first menstrual period.
menarche
The ending of a womanÍs menstrual periods and reproductive capacity around age 51.
menopause
A measure of intellectual development that reflects the level of age-graded problems that a child is able to solve; the age at which a child functions intellectually.
mental age
In BronfenbrennerÍs bioecological approach, interrelationships between microsystems or immediate environments (for example, ways in which events in the family affect a childÍs interactions at a day care center).
mesosystem
A research method in which the results of multiple studies addressing the same question are synthesized to produce overall conclusions.
meta-analysis
Knowledge of the human mind and of the range of cognitive processes, including thinking about personal thought processes.
metacognition
Knowledge of language as a system.
metalinguistic awareness
A personÍs knowledge about memory and about monitoring and regulating memory processes.
metamemory
In BronfenbrennerÍs bioecological approach, the immediate settings in which the person functions (for example, the family).
microsystem
The phenomenon in which middle-aged adults sometimes experience heavy responsibilities for both the younger and the older generations in the family.
middle generation squeeze
A period of major questioning, inner struggle, and re-evaluation hypothesized to occur in an adultÍs early 40s.
midlife crisis
A level of memory loss between normal loss with age and pathological loss from disease.
mild cognitive impairment
Theory of autism that holds that the malfunctioning of behavior simulating mirror neuron systems accounts for the deficits individuals with autism show in imitation, theory of mind skills, empathy, and language.
mirror neuron hypothesis
Neural cells in several brain areas that are activated when we perform an action or observe someone else performing it.
mirror neurons
Loss of a pregnancy before survival of the baby outside the womb is possible.
miscarriage
The process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes and then divides into two genetically identical daughter cells.
mitosis
The analysis of particular genes and their effects, including the identification of specific genes that influence particular traits and the comparison of animals or humans who have these specific genes and those who do not.
molecular genetics
The emotional component of morality, including feelings of guilt, shame, and pride regarding oneÍs conduct.
moral affect
According to Bandura, the ability to avoid self condemnation when engaged in immoral behavior by justifying, minimizing, or blaming others for oneÍs actions.
moral disengagement
The cognitive component of morality; the thinking that occurs when people decide whether acts are right or wrong.
moral reasoning
Standards of conduct that focus on the basic rights and privileges of individuals.
moral rules; Contrast with social-conventional rules
The ability to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction, and to experience pride when doing something right and to experience guilt or shame when doing something wrong.
morality; Morality has affective, cognitive, and behavioral components
GilliganÍs term for what she says is the dominant moral orientation of females, in which the individual emphasizes concern and responsibility for the welfare of other people rather than abstract rights.
morality of care; Contrast with morality of justice
GilliganÍs term for what she says is the dominant moral orientation of males, in which moral dilemmas are viewed as inevitable conflicts between the rights of two or more parties that must be settled by law.
morality of justice ; Contrast with morality of care
A period of time in high school or college when young adults are relatively free of responsibilities and can experiment with different roles to find their identities.
moratorium period
Identity status characterizing individuals who are experiencing an identity crisis or actively exploring identity issues but who have not yet achieved an identity.
moratorium status
The basic units of meaning that exist in a word.
morphemes
Culturally prescribed ways of displaying reactions to a loss.
mourning; Contrast with grief
A change in the structure or arrangement of one or more genes that produces a new phenotype.
mutation
A close, affectively positive, and cooperative relationship in which child and parent are attached to each other and are sensitive to each otherÍs needs; a contributor to moral development.
mutually responsive orientation
A fatty sheath that insulates neural axons and thereby speeds the transmission of neural impulses.
myelin
The depositing of a fatty sheath around neural axons that insulates them and thereby speeds the transmission of neural impulses.
myelination
Unique and integrative ñlife storiesî that we construct about our pasts and futures to give ourselves an identity and our lives meaning; an aspect of personality.
narrative identities
An individual whose approach to human development emphasizes the contribution of genetic factors; specifically, a person who believes that infants enter the world equipped with knowledge that allows them to perceive a meaningful world from the start.
nativist ; Contrast with empiricist
The evolutionary principle that individuals who have characteristics advantageous for survival in a particular environment are most likely to survive and reproduce. Over many generations, this process of ñsurvival of the fittestî will lead to changes in a species and the development of new species.
natural selection
A research method in which the scientist observes people as they engage in common everyday activities in their natural habitats.
naturalistic observation; Contrast with structured observation
The debate over the relative importance of biological predispositions (nature) and environmental influences (nurture) as determinants of human development.
nature_nurture issue
Dimension of temperament that concerns the tendency to be sad, fearful, easily frustrated, and irritable (as opposed to laid back and adaptable).
negative affectivity; See effortful control and surgency/extraversion
The process in operant conditioning in which a response is weakened or made less probable when its consequence is the removal of a pleasant stimulus from the situation.
negative punishment
The process in operant conditioning in which a response is strengthened or made more probable when its consequence is the removal of an unpleasant stimulus from the situation.
negative reinforcement
A parenting style low in demandingness_control and low in acceptance_responsiveness; uninvolved parenting.
neglectful parenting
Pertaining to events or developments in the first month after birth.
neonatal
The process of generating new neurons across the lifespan.
neurogenesis
The basic unit of the nervous system; a nerve cell.
neuron
The brainÍs remarkable ability to change in response to experience throughout the life span, as when it recovers from injury or benefits from stimulating learning experiences.
neuroplasticity
Experiences unique to the individual that are not shared by other members of the family and that tend to make members of the same family different.
nonshared environmental influences; Contrast with shared environmental influences
A symmetrical (bellshaped) curve that describes the variability of characteristics within a population. Most people fall at or near the average score; there are relatively few high or low scores.
normal distribution
A family unit consisting of husband_father, wife_mother, and at least one child. Compare with extended family household.
nuclear family
Condition of being overweight; specifically, being 20% or more above the ñidealî weight for oneÍs height, age, and sex.
obesity
The understanding that objects continue to exist when they are no longer visible or otherwise detectable to the senses; fully mastered by the end of infancy.
object permanence
Learning that results from observing the behavior of other people; emphasized in BanduraÍs social cognitive theory.
observational learning
FreudÍs term for the conflict that 4 to 6-year-old boys experience when they develop an incestuous desire for their mothers and a jealous and hostile rivalry with their fathers.
Oedipus complex
The sense of smell, made possible by sensory receptors in the nasal passage that react to chemical molecules in the air.
olfaction
Also called instrumental conditioning, a form of learning in which freely emitted acts (or operants) become more or less probable depending on the consequences they produce.
operant conditioning
Sexual activity involving contact between the mouth and genitals.
oral sex
In PiagetÍs cognitive developmental theory, a personÍs inborn tendency to combine and integrate available schemes into more coherent and complex systems or bodies of knowledge; as a memory strategy, a technique that involves grouping or classifying stimuli into meaningful clusters.
organization
The process, occurring during the period of the embryo, in which every major organ takes shape in a primitive form.
organogenesis
An attentional system that that reacts to events in the environment; contrast with a focusing system that deliberately seeks out and maintains attention to events.
orienting system
WernerÍs principle that development proceeds from global and undifferentiated states toward more differentiated and integrated patterns of response.
orthogenetic principle
A joint problem among older adults resulting from a gradual deterioration of the cartilage that cushions the bones and keeps them from rubbing together.
osteoarthritis
A disease affecting older adults in which bone tissue is lost, leaving bones fragile and easily fractured.
osteoporosis
The young childÍs tendency to use a word to refer to a wider set of objects, actions, or events than adults do (for example, using the word car to refer to all motor vehicles). Contrast with underextension.
overextension
SieglerÍs view that the development of problem-solving skills is not a matter of moving from one problemsolving approach to a better one with age but of knowing and using a variety of strategies at each age, becoming increasingly selective with experience about which strategies to use in particular situations, and adding new strategies to oneÍs collection.
overlapping waves theory
The overgeneralization of observed grammatical rules to irregular cases to which the rules do not apply (for example, saying mouses rather than mice).
overregularization
A hormone that plays important roles in facilitating parent-infant attachment as well as reducing anxiety and encouraging affiliation in other social relationships.
oxytocin
Care aimed not at curing but at meeting the physical, psychological, and spiritual needs of dying patients.
palliative care
A model of family influence in which parents (particularly mothers) are believed to influence their children rather than vice versa.
parent effects model
The notion that the demands of parenthood cause men and women to adopt distinct roles and psychological traits.
parental imperative
Model of grieving describing four predominant reactions to loss of an attachment figure: numbness, yearning, disorganization and despair, and reorganization.
Parkes/Bowlby attachment model of bereavement
A social equal; a person who functions at a level of behavioral complexity similar to that of the self, often someone of similar age.
peer
The interpretation of sensory input.
perception
Phenomenon in which the most obvious features of an object or situation have disproportionate influence on the perceptions and thought of young children.
perceptual salience
A goal adopted by learners in which they attempt to prove their ability rather than to improve it.
performance goal; Contrast with learning (or mastery) goal
The environment surrounding birth.
perinatal environment
A maternal-fetal specialist who focuses on high-risk pregnancies.
perinatologist
A lax style of parenting combining low demandingness_control and high acceptance_responsiveness in which adults love their children but make few demands on them and rarely attempt to control their behavior.
permissive parenting
Mistake made when an information processor continues to use the same strategy that was successful in the past over and over despite the strategyÍs lack of success in the current situation.
perseveration error
A form of adolescent egocentrism that involves thinking that oneself and oneÍs thoughts and feelings are unique or special.
personal fable
The organized combination of attributes, motives, values, and behaviors that is unique to each individual.
personality
The way in which a personÍs genotype is expressed in observable or measurable characteristics.
phenotype
A genetic disease in which the child is unable to metabolize phenylalanine; if left untreated, it soon causes hyperactivity and mental retardation.
phenylketonuria (PKU)
One of the basic units of sound used in a particular spoken language.
phoneme
The understanding that spoken words can be decomposed into some number of basic sound units, or phonemes; an important skill in learning to read.
phonological awareness
A grasp in which the thumb is used in opposition to the fingers, enabling an infant to become more dexterous at lifting and manipulating objects.
pincer grasp
The ñmaster glandî located at the base of the brain that regulates the other endocrine glands and produces growth hormone.
pituitary gland
An organ, formed from the chorion and the lining of the uterus, that provides for the nourishment of the unborn child and the elimination of its metabolic wastes.
placenta
An openness of the brain cells (or of the organism as a whole) to positive and negative environmental influence; a capacity to change in response to experience.
plasticity
A characteristic influenced by the action of many gene pairs rather than a single pair.
polygenic trait
A well-defined group that a researcher who studies a sample of individuals is interested in drawing conclusions about.
population
The process in operant conditioning whereby a response is weakened when its consequence is an unpleasant event.
positive punishment
The process in operant conditioning whereby a response is strengthened when its consequence is a pleasant event.
positive reinforcement
The tendency of older adults to pay more attention to, better remember, and put more priority on positive information than on negative information.
positivity effect; see also socioemotional selectivity theory
KohlbergÍs term for the fifth and sixth stages of moral reasoning, in which moral judgments are based on a more abstract understanding of democratic social contracts or on universal principles of justice that have validity apart from the views of particular authority figures.
postconventional morality
Proposed stages of cognitive development that lie beyond formal operations.
postformal thought
An episode of severe, clinical depression lasting for months in a woman who has just given birth; to be contrasted with milder cases of the ñbaby blues,î in which a new mother is tearful and moody in the first days after birth.
postpartum depression
A psychological disorder involving flashbacks to traumatizing events, nightmares, and feelings of helplessness and anxiety in the face of danger experienced by victims of extreme trauma such as soldiers in combat and sexually abused children.
posttraumatic stress disorder
A form of discipline that involves the use of superior power to administer spankings, withhold privileges, and so on.
power assertion
In SternbergÍs triarchic theory, the aspect of intelligence that varies from one sociocultural context to another.
practical component
Rules specifying how language is to be used appropriately in different social contexts to achieve goals.
pragmatics
KohlbergÍs term for the first two stages of moral reasoning, in which societyÍs rules are not yet internalized and judgments are based on the punishing or rewarding consequences of an act.
preconventional morality
Prenatal diagnostic procedure in which a motherÍs eggs are fertilized in the laboratory using in vitro fertilization techniques, DNA tests are conducted on the first cells that result from mitosis of each fertilized egg, and only eggs that do not have chromosome abnormalities or genes associated with disorders are implanted in the uterus.
preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Several symptoms experienced shortly before each menstrual period that include having tender breasts, feeling bloated, and being irritable and moody.
premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
According to Piaget, a period during the preschool years when children show little awareness or understanding of rules and cannot be considered to be moral beings.
premoral period
The physical environment of the womb.
prenatal environment
PiagetÍs second stage of cognitive development, lasting from about age 2 to age 7, when children think at a symbolic level but have not yet mastered logical operations.
preoperational stage
Problems of the aging ear, which commonly involve loss of sensitivity to highfrequency or high-pitched sounds.
presbycusis
Problems of the aging eye, especially loss of near vision related to a decreased ability of the lens to accommodate to objects close to the eye.
presbyopia
Symbolic play in which one actor, object, or action symbolizes or stands for another.
pretend play
During PiagetÍs sensorimotor period, the infantÍs repetition of interacting acts centered on his or her own body (e.g., repeatedly kicking).
primary circular reaction
Nonsocial speech, or speech for the self, commonly used by preschoolers to guide their activities and believed by Vygotsky to be the forerunner of inner speech, or silent thinking in words.
private speech
The use of the informationprocessing system to achieve a goal or arrive at a decision.
problem solving
A phase in the mastery of memory strategies in which children can use strategies they are taught but cannot produce them on their own.
production deficiency
A genetic disorder caused by a single dominant gene that makes victims age prematurely and die early.
progeria
Theories that emphasize the systematic genetic control of aging processes. Contrast with damage theories of aging.
programmed theories of aging
Defense mechanism that involves seeing in others the motives we fear we possess, as when a husband charges his wife with being the one who is jealous and insecure, not he.
projection
Positive actions toward other people such as helping and cooperating.
prosocial behavior
Influences that prevent the damaging effects of risk factors or help children overcome disadvantages.
protective factors
In development, the principle that growth proceeds from the center of the body (or the proximal region) to the extremities (or the distal regions).
proximodistal principle
The theoretical perspective associated with Freud and his followers that emphasizes unconscious motivations for behavior, conflicts within the personality, and stages of psychosexual development.
psychoanalytic theory
The research tradition that spawned standardized tests of intelligence and that views intelligence as a trait or a set of traits that can be measured and that varies from person to person.
psychometric approach
FreudÍs five stages of development, associated with biological maturation and shifts in the libido: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
psychosexual stages
EriksonÍs eight stages of development (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity, and integrity), emphasizing social influences more and biological urges less than FreudÍs psychosexual stages.
psychosocial stages
The point at which a person reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of conceiving a child.
puberty
An experiment-like study that evaluates the effects of different treatments but does not randomly assign individuals to treatment groups.
quasi experiment
A technique in which research participants are placed in experimental conditions in an unbiased or random way so that the resulting groups are not systematically different.
random assignment
A sample formed by identifying all members of the larger population of interest and then selecting a portion of them in an unbiased or random way to participate in the study; a technique to ensure that the sample studied is representative or typical of the larger population of interest.
random sample
Defense mechanism that involves expressing motives that are just the opposite of oneÍs real motives, as when a woman who unconsciously wants to gratify her sexual urges instead takes up a crusade against all the sex on television.
reaction formation
The interval between the presentation of a stimulus and a response to it.
reaction time
A psychiatric diagnosis affecting socially deprived and maltreated children that involves either emotionally withdrawn behavior or ñdisinhibitedî attachment that involves indiscriminate interest in people with lack of appropriate wariness of strangers.
reactive attachment disorder
Recollecting or actively retrieving objects, events, and experiences when examples or cues are not provided. Contrast with cued recall memory and recognition memory.
recall memory
A less powerful gene that is not expressed phenotypically when paired with a dominant gene.
recessive gene
The notion in social cognitive theory that the flow of influence between people and their environments is a two-way street; the environment may affect the person, but the personÍs characteristics and behavior will also influence the environment.
reciprocal determinism
The mutual give and take by both parties in a human relationship that forms an important basis for morality.
reciprocity
Identifying an object or event as one that has been experienced before, such as when a person must select the correct answer from several options. Contrast with cued recall memory and recall memory.
recognition memory
A new family that forms after the remarriage of a single parent, sometimes involving the blending of two families into a new one.
reconstituted family
An unlearned and automatic response to a stimulus.
reflex
A defense mechanism that involves retreating to an earlier, less traumatic stage of development.
regression
A strategy for remembering that involves repeating the items the person is trying to retain.
rehearsal
A form of postformaloperational thought in which it is understood that there are multiple ways of viewing a problem and that the solutions people arrive at will depend on their starting assumptions and perspective.
relativistic thinking
A state of active, irregular sleep associated with dreaming; named for the rapid eye movements associated with it.
REM sleep
Removing unacceptable thoughts or traumatic memories from consciousness, as when a young woman who was raped has no memory at all of having been raped (or less drastically, engages in denial, knowing deep down that she was raped but not accepting the reality of it).
repression
Standards of conduct that investigators are ethically bound to honor to protect their research participants from physical or psychological harm.
research ethics
The ability of many organ systems to respond to demands for extraordinary output, such as when the heart and lungs work at maximal capacity.
reserve capacity
An insecure infantcaregiver bond or other intimate relationship characterized by strong separation anxiety and a tendency to show ambivalent reactions to the attachment object upon reunion, seeking and yet resisting contact.
resistant attachment
A group of hereditary disorders that involve gradual deterioration of the light-sensitive cells of the retina.
retinitis pigmentosa (RP)
The process of retrieving information from long-term memory when it is needed.
retrieval
In PiagetÍs theory, the ability to reverse or negate an action by mentally performing the opposite action.
reversibility
Repetitive movements observed in infants shortly before a new motor skill emerges.
rhythmic stereotypies
A ritual that marks a personÍs ñpassageî from one status to another, usually in reference to rituals marking the transition from childhood to adulthood.
rite of passage
The ability to assume other peopleÍs perspectives and understand their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. See perspective-taking skills.
role-taking skills
A disease that has little effect on a pregnant woman but may cause several serious birth defects, such as blindness, deafness, and mental retardation, in unborn children exposed in the first 3 to 4 months of gestation.
rubella; german measles
SieglerÍs approach to studying the development of problem solving that determines what information about a problem children take in and what rules they then formulate to account for this information.
rule assessment approach
Way of managing stress that involves dwelling on problems and attempting to analyze them; may help explain higher rates of depression in females than in males.
ruminative coping
The group of individuals chosen to be the subjects of a study.
sample
The phenomenon in which extraordinary talent in a particular area is displayed by a person who is otherwise mentally retarded.
savant syndrome
Jerome BrunerÍs term for providing structure to a less skilled learner to encourage advancement.
scaffolding
A cognitive structure or organized pattern of action or thought used to deal with experiences.
scheme (or schema; plural: schemes or schemata)
A serious form of mental illness characterized by disturbances in logical thinking, emotional expression, and interpersonal behavior.
schizophrenia
A reluctance or refusal to go to school or to remain there, sometimes called school phobia because it often involves intense anxiety.
school refusal behavior
An attitude or value about the pursuit of knowledge that dictates that investigators must be objective and must allow their data to decide the merits of their theorizing.
scientific method
A mental representation of a typical sequence of actions related to an event that is created in memory and that then guides future behaviors in similar settings.
script
During PiagetÍs sensorimotor period, the infantÍs repetition of interesting actions on objects (e.g., repeatedly shaking a rattle to make a noise).
secondary circular reaction
A trend in industrialized society toward earlier maturation and greater body size.
secular trend
An infant_caregiver bond or intimate relationship in which the individual welcomes close contact, uses the attachment object as a source of comfort, and dislikes but can manage separations.
secure attachment
A point of safety, represented by an infantÍs attachment figure, that permits exploration of the environment.
secure base
Deliberately concentrating on one thing and ignoring something else.
selective attention
A method of studying genetic influence that involves deliberately determining whether a trait can be bred in animals through selective mating.
selective breeding
The concept that older people cope with aging through a strategy that involves focusing on the skills most needed, practicing those skills, and developing ways to avoid the need for other skills.
selective optimization with compensation (SOC)
PeopleÍs perceptions of their unique attributes or traits.
self-concept
A ñsecondary emotionî such as embarrassment or pride that requires an awareness of self; unlikely to emerge until about 18 months of age.
self-conscious emotion
The belief that one can effectively produce desired outcomes in a particular area of life.
self-efficacy
PeopleÍs overall evaluation of their worth as based on an assessment of the qualities that make up the self-concept.
self-esteem
The ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or photograph, which occurs in most infants by 18 to 24 months of age.
self-recognition
A type of explicit memory consisting of general facts.
semantic memory
The aspect of language centering on meanings.
semantics
A boyÍs first ejaculation.
semenarche
The process by which information is detected by the sensory receptors and transmitted to the brain; the starting point in perception.
sensation
As compared to a critical period, a period of life during which the developing individual is especially susceptible to the effects of experience or has an especially high level of plasticity.
sensitive period
PiagetÍs first stage of cognitive development, spanning the first 2 years of life, in which infants rely on their senses and motor behaviors in adapting to the world around them.
sensorimotor stage
The first memory store in information processing in which stimuli are noticed and are briefly available for further processing.
sensory register
The point at which low levels of stimulation can be detected.
sensory threshold
A wary or fretful reaction that infants display when separated from their attachment objects.
separation anxiety
A developmental research design that combines the cross-sectional approach and the longitudinal approach in a single study to compensate for the weaknesses of each.
sequential design
A logical operation that allows a person to mentally order a set of stimuli along a quantifiable dimension such as height or weight.
seriation
An attribute determined by a gene that appears on one of the two types of sex chromosomes, usually the X chromosome.
sex-linked characteristic
A personÍs preference for sexual partners of the same or other sex, often characterized as primarily heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.
sexual orientation
Experiences that individuals living in the same home environment share and that work to make them similar. Contrast with nonshared environmental influences.
shared environmental influences
The memory store in which limited amounts of information are temporarily held; called working memory when its active quality is being emphasized.
short-term memory
A spirit of competition, jealousy, or resentment that may arise between two or more brothers or sisters.
sibling rivalry
A genetic blood disease in which red blood cells assume an unusual sickle shape and become inefficient at distributing oxygen throughout the body.
sickle-cell disease
The genetic mechanism through which a characteristic is influenced by only one pair of genes, one gene from the mother and its partner from the father.
single gene-pair inheritance
The tendency to perceive an object as the same size despite changes in its distance from the eyes.
size constancy
A characteristic mode of response in which the individual is relatively inactive and moody and displays mild resistance to new routines and experiences but gradually adapts. Contrast with easy temperament and difficult temperament.
slow-to-warm-up temperament
A personal sense of when things should be done in life and when the individual is ahead of or behind the schedule dictated by age norms.
social clock
Thinking about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behavior of the self and other people.
social cognition
BanduraÍs theory, which holds that children and adults can learn novel responses merely by observing the behavior of a model, making mental notes on what they have seen, and then using these mental representations to reproduce the modelÍs behavior; more broadly, a theory emphasizing the importance of cognitive processing of social experiences.
social cognitive theory; social learning theory
The process of defining and evaluating the self through comparisons with other people.
social comparison
The changing cadre of significant people who serve as sources of social support to the individual during the life span.
social convoy
A socially defined expectation about how people should behave in particular social contexts.
social norm
The ability to assume other peopleÍs perspectives and understand their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors; role-taking skills.
social perspective-taking skills
A form of play that involves both cooperation with playmates and pretend or symbolic activity.
social pretend play
InfantsÍ monitoring of companionsÍ emotional reactions in ambiguous situations and use of this information to decide how they should feel and behave.
social referencing
Standards of conduct determined by social consensus that indicate what is appropriate within a particular social setting. Contrast with moral rules.
social-conventional rules
EaglyÍs view that gender-role stereotypes are created and maintained by differences in the roles that men and women play in society rather than being inherent in males and females.
social-role hypothesis
VygotskyÍs contextual theory of development, which maintains that cognitive development is shaped by the sociocultural context in which it occurs and grows out of childrenÍs social interactions with members of their culture.
sociocultural perspective
The position people hold in society based on such factors as income, education, occupational status, and the prestige of their neighborhoods.
socioeconomic status (SES)
CarstensenÍs notion that our needs change as we grow older and that we actively choose to narrow our range of social partners to those who can best meet our emotional needs.
socioemotional selectivity theory
Methods for determining who is well liked and popular and who is disliked or neglected in a group.
sociometric techniques
Physical or bodily signs of emotional distress such as loss of appetite or disruption of normal sleep patterns.
somatic symptoms
The genetic endowment that members of a particular species have in common; a contributor to universal species traits and patterns of maturation.
species heredity
Events at work affect home life, and events at home carry over into the work place.
spillover effects
Condition in which the bottom of the neural tube fails to fully close during prenatal development and part of the spinal cord is not fully encased in the protective covering of the spinal column.
spina bifida
A search for ultimate meaning in life that may or may not be carried out in the context of religion.
spirituality
A measure of the dispersion or spread around the mean of a distribution of scores; in the case of IQ tests with a mean score of 100, the standard deviation is 15, meaning that about two-thirds of people taking the test have scores between 85 and 115.
standard deviation
One of the most widely used, individually administered intelligence tests, which yields an IQ score.
Stanford_Binet Intelligence Scale
In PiagetÍs theory, the thought characteristic of the preoperational period that is fixed on end states rather than on the changes that transform one state into another.
static thought; contrast with transformational thought
Undifferentiated, primitive cells that have the ability both to multiply and to differentiate into a variety of specific cells.
stem cell
An individualÍs fear of being judged to have the qualities associated with negative stereotypes of his or her social group.
stereotype threat
An intelligence test based on SternbergÍs triarchic theory that uses a variety of question formats to assess practical, creative, and analytical components of intelligence.
SternbergÍs Triarchic Abilities Tests (STAT)
Fetal death that occurs late in pregnancy when survival outside womb would normally have been possible.
stillbirth
In information processing, the holding of information in the long-term memory store.
storage
HallÍs term for the emotional ups and downs and rapid changes that he believed characterize adolescence.
storm and stress
A series of mildly stressful experiences involving the departure of the parent and exposure to a stranger to which infants are exposed to determine the quality of their attachments; developed by Ainsworth.
Strange Situation
A wary or fretful reaction that infants often display when approached by an unfamiliar person.
stranger anxiety
A research method in which scientists create special conditions designed to elicit the behavior of interest to achieve greater control over the conditions under which they gather behavioral data.
structured observation; contrast with naturalistic observation
SternbergÍs concept that people are intelligent to the extent that they are able to succeed in life in their sociocultural context.
successful intelligence
The death of a sleeping baby because of a failure of the respiratory system; linked to maternal smoking.
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
The psychoanalytic term for the component of the personality that consists of the individualÍs internalized moral standards.
superego
A substance that aids breathing by preventing the air sacs of the lungs from sticking together.
surfactant
Dimension of temperament that involves the tendency to actively and energetically approach new experiences in an emotionally positive way (rather than to be inhibited and withdrawn). See negative affectivity and effortful control.
surgency/extraversion
The capacity to use symbols such as words, images, or actions to represent or stand for objects and experiences; representational thought.
symbolic capacity
The point at which the axon or dendrite of one neuron makes a connection with another neuron.
synapse
Harmonious, dancelike interaction between infant and caregiver in which each adjusts behavior in response to that of the other.
synchronized routine
Using the syntax of a sentence„that is, where a word is placed in a sentence„to determine the meaning of the word.
syntactic bootstrapping
Rules specifying how words can be combined to form meaningful sentences in a language.
syntax
A common sexually transmitted disease that may cross the placental barrier in the middle and later stages of pregnancy, causing miscarriage or serious birth defects.
syphilis
The brainÍs ability to analyze and explore how things work.
systemize
Theories of development holding that changes over the life span arise from the ongoing interrelationships between a changing organism and a changing environment, both of which are part of a larger, dynamic system.
systems theories
The idea that the mind of an infant is a ñblank slateî and that all knowledge, abilities, behaviors, and motives are acquired through experience.
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