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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cognition
The set of processes used to manipulate knowledge and ideas
Phonology
Rules governing how sounds should be combined to make words
Syntax
Rules governing how words should be combined to form sentences
Semantics
The rules used in language to communicate meaning
Phenomes
The smallest significant sound units in language
Morphemes
The smallest units in language that carry meaning
Intelligence
An internal capacity or ability that accounts for individual differences in mental test performance and allows us to adapt to ever changing environments
Psychometric Approach to Conceptualizing intelligence
We assume that intelligence is characterized by one's ability to perform on mental (psychological) tests
Multiple Intelligence
Gardner's theory that people possess a set of separate and independent "intelligences" ranging from musical to linguistic to interpersonal ability
Sternbergs triarchic Theory of Conceptualizing intelligence
There are three types of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical
Freud's psychodynamic approach to personality
Used case studies and determined that much of behavior is governed by unconscious forces. The mind can be divided into the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
Adlers response to freud
disagreed with the notion of pre-puberty sexuality. he believed that our drive to superiority was the underlying factor that determined human motivation and shaped how we feel, think, and behave. Coined the term "inferiority complex
Jung's response to freud
disagreed with freud's understanding of child sexuality. Argued that there was a "general life force" that shaped how we think, feel and behave. Emphasized that creativity was one of the most important motivations for human actions. Also coined the term "collective unconscious" that was passed down to our children from generation to generation
Horney's response to freud
Disagreed with his emphasis on male sexuality. Insisted that a linked exists between the irrational beliefs people hold about themselves and their psychological problems
Critiques of freud
1. not proven scientifically
2. definitions were not precise
3. believed that women were the weaker sex
4. believed that children developed sexual desires before puberty
Differnce between language and communication
Communication is a process of shared meaning
Deep Structure
The underlying representation of meaning in a sentence
Surface structure
The literal ordering of words in a sentence
Achievement tests
Psychological tests that measure your current level of knowledge or competence in a particular subject
Aptitude test
Psychological tests that measure your ability to learn or acquire knowledge in a particular subject
Reliability
A measure of the consistency of test results; should produce similar scores form one administration to the next
Validity
An assesment of how well a test measures what it is suppose to measure
Standardization
Keeping the testing, scoring, and interpretation procedures similar across all administrations of a test
Drives
A psychological state that arises in response to an internal physiological need, such as hungar or thirst
Instincts
internal factors that activate behavior. They are unlearned characteristic patterns of responding, triggered by specific stimuli in the world
Homeostasis
The process through which the body maintains a steady state, such as a constant internal temperature, or an adequate amount of fluids
Maslows hierarchy of needs
(Base of pyrimid) Physiological needs
Safety needs
Social needs
Esteem needs
Self actualization
GLucose
when glucose levels are high, it signals no need to eat
Insulin
Stimulates hungar
Sexual response cylce
4 phase cycle that is consistent in every healthy male and female
Excitement phase
Plateau Phase
Orgasmic phase
Resolution phase
When does ovulation occur
Typically 14 days into a 28 day cycle
Big 5 theory of personality
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Neuroticism
Openess
Self reporting inventories
Most popular kind of personality test. People are asked to identify how much they think a personality characteristic applies to them
Projective Personality Tests
These tests ask the subject to interpret unstructured or ambiguous stimuli such as a picture or an inkblot. In these tests, researchers assume subjects will "project" their thoughts and true feelings into the interpretation. The researcher uses the subject's interpretation to identify that person's personality traits