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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Charles Darwin & Sir Francis Galton
looked at heredity as a source of intelligene.
James McKeen Cattell
found no relationship between Galton's work and school intelligence.
Charles Spearman
Came up with another theory about intelligence testing. Generak intelligence and specifis intelligence, G&S.
Alfred Binet, Theodore Simon, and Lewis Terman
Binet charged with finding a test that weeds out mentally reatarded children, the first G test the actually works, Simon assists.
Terman-trandlates Binet's test at stanford. Starts the trend to find better tests.
E.L. Thorndike
wrote a book on educational measurement. Comes up with an achievment test for writing, launguage, arithmatic, and spelling
Arthur Otis and Robert Yerkes
popularize group testing-testing multiple people at a time
Otis-associated with founding the multiple choice test
Yerkes-Army intelligence tests Alpha and Beta WWI
Robert Woodworth, Herman Rorschach, and Henry Murray
personality tests
Rorschach-inkblot test
Murray-TAT thematic apperception test
E.K. Strong JR.
intrest inventory
Describe sources of information about psychological tests.
test publisher,PRo. ed., books on specific tests.PsycLit/PsycInfo,online searches,APA websie, MEntal MEasurements yearbook
Describe ways tests can be classified
Administration-group vs. individulal, speed vs, power
Construction-stadardized vs. non-standardized
Content-afective vs. cognitive-achievment vs. apptitude, verbal vs. non-verbal
Scoring- objective vs. non-objective
Describe the possible uses of tests.
1.screen applicants
2. education and employment classifications
4.Personnel decisions keep, switch pos., fire
6.Problem Evaluation
7. Research
Explain and Describe Qualifications of test users
A,B, & C A being least and C being most restrictive
A-user has completed at least one course in measurement,guidance. or an appropriate related discipline or has equivalent supervised experience in test administration and interpretation.
B- User has completed graduate training in measurement, guidance, individual psychological assessment, or special appraisal methods approriate for a perticular test.
C- User had completed a recognzed graduate training program in psychology with appropriate coursework and supervised practical experience in the administration and interpretation of clinical assessment instruments.
Describe the ethical guidelines for using test.
1. Security, before during and aft the test
2. Care w/labels
3.Copyright law
4.Administration &Results
5. Scoring
Describe Issues to consider when planning a test.
1. Content-know where youre going before you start.
2.Types of questions
3. Item and test formats and layouts
5.Scoring and evaluation
Describe types of Educational objectives relevant for organizing test items (taxonomy of cognitive objectives)
Knowledge-Recall of previously learned facts

Comprehension-Understanding the meaning or purpose of something

Application-Using info, and ideas in specific situations

Analysis-Breaking down of something to reveal structure and interrelations

Syntheis-combining various elements or partsinto a structural whole

Evaluation-Making a judgement based on reasoning
Describe Behavioral and content considerations for preparing test items (table of specifications)
uses the educational objective to write and score questions for the test
Know the advantages and disadvantages of selected vs.constructed response items AND be familiar with the following test items: multiple choice, true-false, mathcing, likert, short answer, essay, and storytelling
Selected response
advantages-easier to score, assess more, cover more nfo.
ex.- true/false, mult. choice, matching, likert

constructed response
ex- short answer,portfolios, essay test items, story telling
Know what to consider when assembling and reproducing a test
1.test length- 1 min per mult. choiceitem 1 min per 2 true/false items
2.Arrangement of items-quality, essay at end
3.Answer sheets
4.Test directions-general direction at beginning with specific instructions at each new level
Describe advantages and disadvantages of oral testing
Advantages- social interaction, cheating/bluffing is more easily detected, encourage better studying
Disadvantages-lack eficency, too time consuming,poorly planned
Understand the Strategies of performance testing.
focus on the product or end result of performing a skill the process by which its done is also important
Describe the examiners duties Before and After testing
Before- Scheduling, informed consent, becoming familiar with the test, ensuring satisfactory testing conditions, minimizing cheating, minimizing faking good or faking bad

After-collect and secure test materials, reassure examinees concerning test performance (reward small children if deemed necessary), ask if examinees have questions, give info on what will be done with results, when its a standardized test test materials must be accounted for and collated properly before examinees can leave or be allowed to go on to the next part
Understand strategies for improving test scores, what is meant by “testwiseness,” and how to counter it
testwiseness-a nongeneral, cue-specific ability that develops as students mature and share information on test-taking skills.
TO Minimize- constructing items carefully and avoiding cues such as item length, specific determiners, grammatical errors, stylistic giveaways, and heterogeneous (nonparallel) options.
Understand the rationale and strategies for adaptive testing
rationale- it saves time, and is more efficient by giving examinees questions based on their level of understanding rather than a mix including questions which are too easy or too hard

Strategies-Applying an appropriate statistical model and ite-response methodology, a pool of test items varying in difficulty and perhaps other characteristics is assembled for administration by computer. examinees ability dictates which questions comes next.selections are based on examinees previous ansers. testing continues until the estimate of error or level of accuracy of the responses reaches a specified level.
Understand strategies for minimizing error in essay tests
Decide whether to score answer as a whole or divide in to seperate weights
1. score all answers to one quetion before moving on to the next
2.scaore all answers to a specific question during the same period.
3.If both style and content are to be scored, evaluate them seperately
4.Have a second person rescore each paper and make the final score the averagee of the number of points assigned by the two scores
5. Write comments next to the examinees responses, and mark corrections on the papers.
Understand strategies for scoring objective tests
machine scoring

is this all?
Understand scoring weights for multiple-choice tests
fix me!
Understand correction for guessing
S= R- (W)/2(k-1)
explain me!
Understand strategies for scoring oral tests
Have a rubric made prior to the examination. Have examiners trained how to not show favoritism etc.
Understand weighting final scores
fix me!