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80 Cards in this Set

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fertilized egg
zygote
harmful agents that affect the prenatal environment

when do they have the greatest effect?
teratogens

embryonic stage
rooting reflex
searching for a nipple
developmental psychologists study __ __ __ changes throughout life

what influences these?
physical, mental, and social

genes, environment
embryo
stage where egg attaches to uteran wall
9 week after fertilization to birth: what is it called
fetus
germinal stage

blastocyst
tropholoblast
conception- 2 weeks

becomes embryo
supporting materials
embryonic stage

endoderm
mesoderm
ectoderm
3-8 weeks

inner organs
muscle, skeletal, circulatory
outer layer, brains, nuerons
fetal stage
9 weeks-birth
thalidomide
drug used as a tranquilizer to help infertile women

stopped development of body parts
cocaine
genetial, uteran disruption. kidney damage
alcohal
results in FAS

ADD, retardation, slow growth
ways to predict prenatal disorders
genetic counseling
ultrasound
piaget
studied childhood psychologial development
schemas

organizatio
sets of knowledge

combining schemas into new, more complex ideas
adaptation

assimilation

adaptation
adjusting to demands of environment

process of interpreting information in existing schemas

modifying schemas to better fit new information
equillibration
process of searching for new balances
cognition
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
sensorimotor stage

characteristics
duration
lack object permanance

take in world through sensory and motor interactions with objects

birth-2 years
preoperational stage

characteristics
duration
irreversable thought
whole/part errors
egocentrism
theory of mind- ability to induce others feelings

2-6 years
concrete operations stage

characteristics
duration
reversible thought
logical thinking
basic arithmetic operations

egocentrism is still somewhat present

7-11 years
formal operations stage

characteristics
duration
can critically thinking (hypothetical situations)

contemplating abilities
adolscent egocentrism

12-adulthood
criticisms to piaget
children may be able to do skils in a different level than they are "in"

children are more capable than he thinks they are
do infants prefer familiar faces?

stranger anxiety def
yes

fear of strangers when young
attachment

critical period
bond/survival skill that keeps infants close to their caregivers

certain events that must happen shortly after birth to ensure proper growth
imprinting
seeing your mother first
secure vs insecure attachment
loving vs non loving mothers

distressed young vs upset and crying or no care at all
is stimulation key in early development?
yes
what do children need?
a warm, consistent relationship
self-concept

def
when developed
sense of their own identity and personal worth

age 12
when children form positive self concepts, what is the result
more independent, assertive, and sociable
best type of parenting
authoritative
vygotsky

Learning is a ___ process

internal speech

zone of proximal development
culture is prime factor in determining learning capabilities

dialectical

talk to yourself to solve problems

range of skills that cannot be developed on their own
critical period
certain steps that must happen after birth to ensure proper child development

imprinting- rigid attachment
primary sex characteristics
reproductive organs and external genetalia
secondary sex characteristics
non reproductive traits (breasts, facial hair)
menarche
first menstrual period
what develops in the brain during puberty
thickness of the myelin
preconventional morality
follow rules simply to gain rewards
conventional morality
upholds laws and rule simply becuase they are laws and rules
postconventional morality
compares rules to ethics
moral judgement is more than thinking: its a ___ ____
gut feeling
physchologist who developed psychological development
erikson
cornea
protective layer on eye
pupil
black spot, recieves light
iris
colored spot around, dilates pupil
lens
what focuses light on the retina
retina
where light is hit and focused
blind spot
where optic nerves connect
vitreous humor
liquid in eye
rods

cones

which one is close to fovea?
which one linked directly to bipolar cells
rods- sensitive to light

cones- sensitive to color(close)(direct link)
bipolar cells vs ganglion cells
recieve information from rods and cones. ganglion cell axons transmit information/make up the optic nerve
young hemholtz trichromatic theory
red green and blue receptors that mix to create other colors
opponent process theory
seeing one color for an extended amount of time, other colors will become more excited
presbuyopia
inability to see things up close due to hardening of lense
myopia
inability to see things far away
stigmatism
misshapen cornea: cant see clearly
catarax
hardening of the lense: blindeness
glaucoma
leading cause of blindess: buildup of vitreous humor, resulting in the pinching off of the optic nerve
parallel processing
ability to process multiple things at once (depth, movement, form)
opponent process theory
(discolored flag scenario)
color constantcy
tomato in bowl
transduction
systems systems > nueral messages
top down vs bottom up perception
top down= conceptual knowledge, concept driven

bottom up- data driven
visual capture
vision dominates over other senses
figure ground perception
recognize object from its background
proximity grouping
similarity grouping
continuity grouping
connectedness grouping
closure grouping
group things that are closer together

group things that are similar

we percieve smooth, continuous patterns

uniformity/linked

we fill in gaps to creat objects
stroop effect
our intuiton is to read rather than describe

RED GREEN BLUE
retinal disparity
each eye sees a slightly different image
retenal convergance
eyes turn inward to a near object
texture
larger grains appear near

finer grains appear far
interposition
blocking or being blocked by an object
linear perspective
convering vs diverging lines
aerial perspective (reletive clarity)
clear pictures appear near

blurry pictures appear far
location on picture plane
bigger= below horizon

smaller= above horizon
motion parralax
farther object move slower

closer objects move faster
phi phenomenon
blinking lights
ponzo illusion
two same sized bars at differnt distances: the further one seems bigger
lightness constantcty
we percieve objects with constant color when illumination varies
pedigree studies
family tree studies