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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
customs, beliefs, art and technology
US, Canada, Western Eucrope, Australia, New Zealand
The West
the West and Eastern countries passed through the industrial revolution, now based mainly on services and information
Industrialized countries
Culture that sets most of norms and holds most power

US- white/middle class
Majority culture
group of people who interact in the course of sharing a common geographical area
based on stable traditions; value stability over change; usually found in pre industrialized countries
Traditional Culture
traditional; pre industrialized; becoming industrialized
Developing Countries
social class
-education level
-income level
-occupational status
Socioeconomic status
life occurs in stages
Childhood- 7-14
Adolescence- 14-21
Plato and Aristotle
life-cycle service
apprenticeship-7 years
gave opportunity to learn trades
provided master with free labor
Adolescence from 1500-1800
1.Enactment of laws restricting child labor
Brown lung- cottong fibers
Black lung- coal in their lungs
2. Laws required a longer period of schooling

laws regarding child labor and school were a way to keep young people from earning their own wages and keeing them dependent on adults

Intentionist View
founds study of adolescence

"Strum and Strang" & "Storm and Stress"-adolescene is a turbulant time chanrged with conflit and mood swings

First book adolescence
G. Stanley Hall
each person reenacts the evolutionary development of the human race
"Coming of Age in Somoa"

Cultural relativism-importance of social institutions/cultural factors in human development
Margaret Mead
adolescent generalizing gap-negative generalizations are based on small, easily visible percentage of adolescents
Joseph Adleson
3 main types of growth
-smooth, nonabrupt change
-abruput spurt or changes in behavior, not necessarily with turmoil, storm stress
-major interpersonal and emoitional distress
history, culture, and social factors such as family, school, peer groups, and communities (the setting in which development occurs)
how national government influences welface of citizens(course of action)
Social Policy
low in treatment of children/adolescents, no health insurance, poverty, aging, under budgeted schools
younger members of an aging society receive fewer resources than older adults
Generational Inequity
1. Health and Well-being
2. Gender
3. Family
4. School
5. Peers
Impact of Culture
change that ranges from conception to death
process of development

physical changes
process of development

changes in how an individual thinks
changes in how we deal with other people and experience emotions
behaviors that society believes is important for its maintenance/pepetuation
social roles
Periods of Development

Prenatal Period- conception to birth
infancy- birth to 18-24 months
early childhood- infancy to 5 or 6
middle and late childhood- 6 to about 11
to grow up
transition between childhood and adulthood

junior high years
Eary Adolescence
aboug high school through 20
late adolescence
twenties and thirties
Early adulthood
35 to 65
Middle Adulthood
65 until death
late adulthood
transitional period between adolescence and adulthood. Kenneth Kennison
approximately 18-25 years characterized by expermimental and exploration. Arnett
Emerging Adulthood
most important influence on development is biological
Nature approach
importance of environment
Nurture approach
development is gradual, additive- without sudden change
continuity view
development involves discontinous qualitative transformations
infancy especially important
Early experience view
early experiences no more important than later experiences
later experience view
logically related statements that explain past/predict future events
Development is mostly beyond consicous awareness; heavily infuenced by emotions
Psychoanalytic Theories
pleasure principle (only one we are born with) no contact with reality
reality principle (no morality) try to satisfy the id within the confines of reality (follow rules of society)
moral principle
conscience- what we should not do
ego ideal- things we should do
(standards of right and wrong) guilty
Psychosexual Stages of Development- Freud

first year of life.
thumb sucking; objectless; don't have conceptions of world

Develop concent of mother as separate person
Oral Stage
idea you are suck in stage of development
go back to earlier stage

ex. child when parents have new baby
ages 1-3
obsessed with pleasures of bowl movement
Anal Stage
generally messy people
Anal expulsive
order, neatness
Anal compulsive
ages 3-6
a. Boy Oedipus complex- wants to sleep with Mom; castration; anxiety; formation of superego
b. Girls electra comlex- penis envy, weaker superego
Phallic/Oedipal Stage
Ages 6-11
Supression of aggressive/sexual feelings
Latency Stage
Puberty on. Sexual reawakening; separation from parents
Genital Stage
Never actually treated on a child.
Based on his theory of psychiatric populations.
Too much emphasis on sex and violence
Falsifiable- theory cannot be scientific if it does not admit consideration of possiblity of its being false
Problems with Freudian Theory
1st year. Most important- consistency, predictablity, and reliability in care takers actions
Trust vs. Mistrust
1-3. Trying to exercise sense of autonomy
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Preschool. Child makes plans, sets goals, and preserves in attaining them
Initiative vs. guilt
elementary school. learning useful skills and tools of wider culture.
Industry vs. Inferiority
adolescence. Establishing an ego identity- who one is; one's place in the larger social order
Identity vs. Indentity Confusion
early adulthood. Intimacy
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity- creation of children/production of things and ideas through work
Generativity vs. Stagnation
old age (60+)
Life review- accomplishments, regrets
Ego integrity- order to life, did best they could with their life circumstances
Integrity vs. Despair
Piaget's Cognitive-Development Theory

coordiante boyd activiy with outside world
Sensorimotor Stage
(2-7) When we learn how to speak
Preoperational Stage
start to use logic, but limited
Concrete Operational
(11+) More rational and logical thought
FOrmal operational
computer model- individuals manipulate info, monitor it, strateguze about it
Information Processing THeory
most important contributor to development is environemnt
How stimuli affect behavior
Pavlov's classical conditioning
how rewards/ punishments affect probablity behaviors will be repeated
Skinner's operant conditioning
basic rules/terminology of behaviorism; adds inmitation/modeling
Social Congitive Theory
behaviors rooted in our evolutionary/biological backgrounds
Ethological Theory
setting in which individual lives
relationships between microsystems
sometimes experiences in a social setting over which we have no control affect us
events/transitions in an individuals life; influence of social/historical trends
measure yields consistent results
every time you take they test you get about the same score
test-retest reliability
different people who score the measure would score in the same way for each person
Inter-rater reliablitity
measures what it claims to measure
Internal Validity
findings can be generalized to other people, situations, settings etc
External Validity
systematically observe; describe things as they happen
Descriptive research
study things in their natural environment
Naturalistic observation
people change their behavior when they know they are being observed
Hawthorne effect
when you spend a lot of time with people, usually living with them
Ethnographic research
participants given beeper that goes off randomly- at that time give snapshot of life
Experience sampling method
intense examination usually done a single person or small group of people
case studies
prediction; use it anytime it is unethical, illegal or impossible to indroduce a particular variable
Correlational research
degree of relationship between 2 or more variables
Correlation Coefficient
two variables change in same direction
as one increases- other decreases