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152 Cards in this Set

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________ is the ability to see the details of objects.
Acuity
Jeana Potter
___________ are the eye muscles that control the shape of the lenses.
Ciliary Muscles
Jeana Potter
____________is the ability to detect the presence of dimly lit objects.
Sensitivity
Jeana Potter
What are Cones?
the visual receptors in the retina that mediate high-acuity color vision in good lighting.
Jeana Potter
__________is the rapid movement of the eyes between fixations.
Saccades.
Jeana Potter
What involves only one eye?
Monocular
Jeana Potter
What is color consistency?
The tendency of an object to appear the same color even when the wavelengths of light that it reflects change.
Jeana Potter
________the procedure used to map scotomas.
The Perimetry test
Jeana Potter
_________ is having a scotoma covering half of the visual field
Hemianopsic
Jeana Potter
__________ is an inability to consciously recognize sensory stimuli of a particular class hat is not attributable to sensory deficit or a verbal or intellectual impairment.
Agnosia
Jeana potter
What is sensation?
the process of detecting the presence of a stimuli
Nicole Stout
What is acuity in vision?
the ability to see the details of objects
Nicole Stout
What is rhodopsin?
the photopigment of rods
Nicole Stout
What are the 2 types of photoreceptors?
rods and cones
Nicole Stout
What is parallel processing?
simultaneous analysis of a signal in a different ways by the multiple parallel pathways of neural network
Nicole Stout
What are the largest and most deeply positioned receptors?
Pacinian Corpuscles
Nicole Stout
The identification of objects by touch is called?
Stereognosis
Nicole Stout
What are the three somatosensation systems?
Exteroceptive system, proprioceptive system, interoceptive system
Nicole Stout
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31
Nicole Stout
How many ascending pathways to the brain?
2
Nicole Stout
What five layers of the different types of neurons is the retina composed of?
receptors, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, retinal ganglion cells
Diana Dukovcic
Through what two major pathways does somatosensory informtation ascent, from each side of the body to the human cortex?
the dorsal-column medial-lemniscus system and the anterolateral system
Diana Dukovcic
What are the three phases of energy metabolism?
the cephalic phase, the absorptive phase, and the fasting phase
Diana Dukovcic
What nerve ending is responsible for localized, sharp, and distinct pain?
A-Delta Fibers
Kanon Peterson
What nerve ending is responsible for Diffuse, Burning, and aching pain?
C Fibers
Kanon Peterson
If an inhibitory interneuron neuron is activated what happens to the pain signal headed towards the brain?
It is Inhibited
Kanon Peterson
Motor output is guided by sensory imput from what?
1. accurate body map/homunculus
2.Inhibitory feedback from muscles and joints
3.Visual input
Kanon Peterson
Which is it more likely to have multiple receptors cells bound to the retinal ganglion cell? Rods or Cones?
Rods, via multiple bipolar cells
Kanon Peterson
What is the lowest level in hierarchical organization of the sensory system?
Sensation - detecting a stimuli.
Alaina Florez
What is the highest level in hierarchical organization of the sensory system?
Perception - understanding a stimuli.
Alaina Florez
How should you think of your senses instead of thinking in terms of having 5 senses?
You should think of yourself as having multiple sensory modalities, which tells you that you have multiple types of environmental and physical energy that you are able to process.
Alaina Florez
What are some general characteristics of all sensory modalities?
Sensation, Signal Reception, Transduction, Integration, Adaptation, Amplification, and Targets.
Alaina Florez
What results are caused by damage to tactile sensory system?
Damage to peripheral receptors - Peripheral Neuropathy: Loss of senstaion. Damage to spinal cord - Paralysis and loss of sensation below the level of injury. A dysfunction in the perceptual process can provide a sensory deficit or an apparent sensory deficit in the absence of sensory dysfunction.
Alaina Florez
Where does the posterior parietal association cortex receive input/organizes information from?
Somatosensory Cortex, and the Temporal and Occipital Lobes.
Alaina Florez
What is the hierarchical organization of the sensation and perception system?
Association Cortex, Secondary Sensory Cortex, Primary Sensory Cortex, Thalamus, Receptors.
Alaina Florez
What are the two association cortices with respect to the sensation and perception system?
Posterior Parietal Association Cortex and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Association Cortex.
Alaina Florez
What are the sensory cortices with respect to the sensation and perception system?
Primary Visual, Primary Auditory Cortex, Primary Motor Cortex, Somatosensory Cortex.
Alaina Florez
What does the dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex initiate? And where does the DPAC output to?
Initiates complex voluntary motor responses. Output to - Primary Motor Cortex, Secondary Motor Cortex, Frontal Eye Field, Basal Ganglia.
Alaina Florez
What are parvocellular layers composed of, responsive to, and what provides the majority of the input?
composed of small bodied neurons, responsive to color, and cones.
Caleb Evans
What are magnocellular layers composed of, responsive to, and what provides the majority of the input?
composed of large bodied neurons, responsive to movement, and rods.
Caleb Evans
What is very important about color constancy?
It is the tendency for an object to stay the same color despite major changes to the wavelengths of light that it reflects.
Caleb Evans
What information does the anterolateral system carry?
Pain and temperature.
Caleb Evans
What is a reflex that is elicited by a sudden external stretching force on a muscle?
Stretch Reflex.
Caleb Evans
What is sensation?
the ability to detect stimuli in the environment.
Melissa Allbee
What is perception?
the ability to form a useful internal representation from sensation.
Melissa Allbee
What are the steps of Sensation?
1. Signal Reception
2. Transduction
3. Integration
4. Adaptation
5. Amplification
6. Target
Melissa Allbee
What are the photoreceptors and what stimulates them?
Cones: color, bright light
Rods: white/black, dim light
Melissa Allbee
What are the layers of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) and what are their properties?
Parvocellular Layer (p-layer)
-channel run through the top 4 layers of LGN
-composed of neurons w/small cell bodies
-responsive to color, fine pattern, stationary objects
-input primarily cones
Magnocellular Layer (M-Layer)
-channel runs through bottom 2 layers of LGN
-composed of neurons w/ large body cells
-responsive to movement
-input primarily rods
Melissa Allbee
What does the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Association Cortex (DPAC) do? What are the output areas of the DPAC?
Initiates complex voluntary motor responses.
Output- Primary motor cortex, secondary motor cortex, basal ganglia, and frontal eye field.
Melissa Allbee
What are the three tracts of the Anterolateral System?
Spinothalamic tract-thalamus
Spinotectal tract- tectum
Spinoreticular- reticular formation
Melissa Allbee
What job does the thalamus have when there is pain in the brain?
Pain perception, threat orientation
Melissa Allbee
During ascending signals, what do A-delta and c-fiber contribute?
They inhibit (IPSP) the inhibitory signal, allowing the T cell to fire and send pain signal to the brain.
Melissa Allbee
What are the three phases of energy metabolism?
1. Cephalic
2. Absorptive
3. Fasting
Melissa Allbee
Describe the specificity theory of pain.
Pain is the transmission of signals from the body to pain centers in the brain. Pain is proportional to the injury.
Katelyn Johnson
What are the problems with the specificity theory?
People who have bad injuries report little pain at times
People with minor injuries report a lot of pain
Phantom limb pain
Deafferination does not remove pain
Katelyn Johnson
What is the homunculi?
Essentially body maps in our somatosensory and primary motor cortex that have designated areas which activate and send signals to each part of our body i.e. arms, face
Katelyn Johnson
What motor pathways are the dorsolateral corticospinal tract responsible for?
Distal limb muscles of legs
Fine motor control of individual digits
Katelyn Johnson
What is the procedure that Ramachandran came up with to help patients with phantom limb pain?
Using mirrors to see the reflection of their intact limbs has helped them feel relief from the pain and discomfort of their phantom limb
Katelyn Johnson
What is kinesthesia?
location of the body in space
Jordan Jakubov
Cerebellum Function
1. fine tuning of motor/cognitive responses
2.compares imput from motor systems and corrects deviations from plans
Jordan Jakubov
Two ascending pathways to the brain
1. Dorsal-column medial lemniscus system
2. Anterolateral system
Jordan Jakubov
Damage to DPAC
problems in ability to plan, temporally sequences and initial sequences of actions
Jordan Jakubov
Secondary Motor Cortex Functions
learning, planning, programming of movements, sequences of behaviors
Jordan Jakubov
Where does the secondary motor cortex receive input from
1. primary motor cortex
2. association cortices
Jordan Jakubov
Damage to secondary motor cortex in humans
problems with ability to perform complex sequences of behavior (walking, riding a bike)
Jordan Jakubov
tactile sensory system: damage to peripheral receptors
peripheral neuropathy-loss of sensation
Jordan Jakubov
tactile sensory system: damage to spinal cord
paralysis and loss of sensation below the level of the injury
Jordan Jakubov
What is the hierarchical organization of sensation/perception system of tactile info?
1. association cortex
2. secondary motor cortex
3. primary motor cortex
4. brain stem motor nuclei
5. spinal motor circuits
Jordan Jakubov
important characteristics of motor movement
-motor output guided by sensory input
-motor plans caries as a function of learning
-hierarchical system
-motor movements can be cortically mediated and reflexive
Jordan Jakubov
characteristics of primary somatosensory/motor cortex homunculi
1. more geography on cortex corresponds to greater sensory/motor specificity
2. more neurons with smaller receptive fields
3. more neurons projecting to spinal cord
4. neural plasticity
Jordan Jakubov
Transduction in the visual system
-cones are color/fine detail detectors
-rods located in peripheray
-rods/cones stimulate bipheripheray
Jordan Jakubov
True or false: rods need larger things to stimulate them?
True
Jordan Jakubov
What color stands out most at night?
Blue
Jordan Jakubov
What is the highest level of organization?
Perception
Jordan Jakubov
Most general relay station?
Thalamus
Jordan Jakubov
True or false: In the striate cortex more cortex is devoted to areas of high acuity?
True
Jordan Jakubov
For every 4 rods how many ganglion cells are there?
1
Jordan Jakubov
Basal ganglia get input from
multiple cortical regions
substantia nigra
Jordan Jakubov
Motor programs of the secondary motor cortex
typing, driving car and writing
Blaine Muhl
Basal Ganglia output goes to
thalamus-->motor cortices
Blaine Muhl
Ascending Signals
Go from the bottom up
-info from the environment to receptors to spinal cord to cortex
Blaine Muhl
Descending signals
Brain to motor neurons, top down
Blaine Muhl
Primary Motor Cortex
Spinal Efferents synapse with motor endplate and cause a muscle contraction
Blaine Muhl
2 dorsolateral tracts
Distal limb movements and fine motor movements
Blaine Muhl
Dorsolateral Coticospinal Tract
Synapse in medulla
distal limb muscles of legs/fine motor or individual digits
Blaine Muhl
Dorsolateral Corticrubrospinal tract
synapses in red nucleus
also synapses with facial muscles so it also controls movement of them
Blaine Muhl
two ascending pathways in the brain
dorsal column medial lemniscus system
anterolateral system
Blaine Muhl
Anterolateral system carries...
pain information
Blaine Muhl
Response chunking
practice creates motor programs like driving or typing
Blaine Muhl
learning shifts from
Higher to lower processing levels
Blaine Muhl
DPAC and PPAC control
New Behaviors
Blaine Muhl
Secondary Motor Cortex Controls
practiced Behaviors
Blaine Muhl
lawrence and kuypers experiment
wanted to find difference between dorsolateral and ventromedial pathways
Blaine Muhl
Basal Ganglia function
1. modulates motor output
2. selection.initiation of learned motor responses
3. motor learning
4. complex cognitive tasks
Blaine Muhl
Basal Ganglia : input from/to
From:
multiple cortical areas
-substantia nigra

To:
Thalamus-->motor cortices
Blaine Muhl
Basal Ganglia Damage
results in parkinsons disease
-resting tremor
-trouble initiating motor patterns
Blaine Muhl
Sensorimotor system : hierarchical organization, the information flows
From highest to lowest level:
Association Cortex--muscles
Blaine Muhl
Sensorimotor system: parallel processing
-signals flow between levels over multiple paths
-enables the association cortex to control lower levels of hierarchy in more than one way
Blaine Muhl
What type of contrast X-Ray is most useful for identifying vascular damage?
Cerebral Angiogram
Abby Krone
Which give you a clearer image of the brain? CT or MRI
MRI
Abby Krone
Which scan was the FIRST to show brain activity?
PET scan
Abby Krone
What kind of signal is recorded by an fMRI?
BOLD:Blood Oxygen Level Development signal
Abby Krone
True or False: An fMRI provides structural AND functional info.
True
Abby Krone
True or False: fMRI's show activity of the brain
False- fMRI's show BOLD signals
Abby Krone
What is the main advantage a MEG has over a fMRI?
An MEG has better temporal resolution
Abby Krone
An EEG shows great temporal resolution but poor_______.
spatial resolution
Abby Krone
What does an Electromyography measure?
Muscle tension
Abby Krone
What does Electroculography measure?
Eye movement
Abby Krone
What machine uses high-resolution images constructed from waves that hydrogen atoms emit when activated by radio waves?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Morgan Maxon
What is a technique for examining brain structure by constructing a composite of x-ray images taken from many different angles of the brain?
Computerized Tomography (CT)
Morgan Maxon
What machine measures blood flow and oxygen use within the brain?
fMRI
Morgan Maxon
What is the master gland?
The pituitary gland
Morgan Maxon
What are the three types of hormones?
steroid, amino acid/peptide, and protein hormones
Morgan Maxon
What is the difference between primary and secondary hypothyroidism?
Primary is caused by a failure of the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4. Secondary is caused by the failure of the pituitary gland to produce TSH.
Morgan Maxon
What hormone helps make a male?
Testosterone
Morgan Maxon
Which stress system deals with acute stress?
SAM-CAT: sympathetic-adrenicortical medullary-catelcholamine
Morgan Maxon
Which stress system deals with chronic stress?
HPAC
Morgan Maxon
What does schizophrenia mean?
"split-brain"
Morgan Maxon
When antipsychotic medication is given to schizophrenics, what disease do the symptoms resemble?
Parkinson's Disease
Morgan Maxon
What brain structure appears smaller in people who have PTSD?
The hippocampus
Morgan Maxon
What is the treatment exposure theory?
Exposure to feared stimuli in a safe environment can in turn make people less scared of the stimuli, and eventually overcome their PTSD
Morgan Maxon
What is the military now using for IRAQ war veterans to try and help with PTSD
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)
Morgan Maxon
In which stage of sleep does REM occur?
Stage 1
Morgan Maxon
When does slow-wave sleep occur?
Stages 3 and 4
Morgan Maxon
What stage has k complexes?
Stage 2
Morgan Maxon
What is the activation-synthesis theory?
That during REM sleep, many brain-stem circuits become active and bombard the cerebral cortex with neural signals.
Morgan Maxon
What are environmental cues called that entrain circadian rhythms?
Zeitgebers
Morgan Maxon
Lesions of what part of the brain can disrupt circadian cycles?
Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN) of the medial hypothalamus.
Morgan Maxon
Greeks and Romans theorized that the cause of psychiatric illnesses was due to what?
An imbalance of humors.
Rebecca Temaat
Eating, sleeping, and loss of sexual interest are some of the vegetative signs of what?
Depression.
Rebecca Temaat
An example of a monoamine is what?
Serotonin, Norepinepherine
Rebecca Temaat
A lack of what monoamine causes depression?
Serotonin.
Rebecca Temaat
When does schizophrenia usually begin?
Late adolescence, early adulthood
Rebecca Temaat
what does MRI stand for, and what is it?
MRI = magnetic resonance imaging
MRIs are high resolution images constructed from the measurement of waves that hydrogen atoms emit when they are activated by radio-frequency waves in the magnetic field.
Bea Raemdonck
what is paired image subtraction technique?
using PET and fMRI, the researcher obtains both images during several cognitive functions. tasks are designed so that pairs of them differ from each other in terms of only single contistuent cognitive processing tasks. then the brain activity associated with the process can be estimated by subtracting one of the two tasks from the activity in the image associated witht he other
Bea Raemdonck
what is a hormone?
a chemical messenger produced by a gland that is carried by the circulatory system to a distant target organ.
Bea Raemdonck
what are the two "key players" in hormones?
hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Bea Raemdonck
what are some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism or graves disease?
protruding eyes, weight loss, increased appetite, nervousness, anxiety, restlessness, mania, fatigue, heat intolerance, tremor, and rapid heart rate
Bea Raemdonck
what is the genetic difference between males and females?
males have XY genes which produce testosterone and females have XX genes
Bea Raemdonck
what is the defining characteristic of the SAM CAT response and the HPAC response?
SAM CAT= acute stress--> fight or flight
HPAC= chronic stress -->conservation and hunkerdown
Bea Raemdonck
how do MAOIs and Tricyclic acids differ in treating depression?
MAOIs = prevent breakdown of serotonin, epinephrine and nor epinephrin
Tycyclic acids= block the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephine, histamine and acetylcholine
Bea Raemdonck
how do you know when someone is asleep?
there is a characteristic change in brain functioning, the waking brain produces high frequency electrical activity, the sleeping brain has more synchronized electrical activity.
Bea Raemdonck
what are the primary emotions?
surprise, happy, sad, anger, fear, and disgust.
Bea Raemdonck
What are the characteristics of Stage 3 sleep?
Delta waves (largest amplitude and lowest frequency)
Tanya Izrailev
What is Paradoxical sleep?
During sleep, your EEG looks awake (active Beta waves and high HR and BP)
Tanya Izrailev
What can occur to a fetus with XX chromosomes that is exposed to testosterone at 6 weeks? 12 weeks? 8 to 15 weeks?
6 weeks > testes
12 weeks > wolfian system and mullarian system present
8- 15 weeks > Penis
Tanya Izrailev
The Y chromosome is the smallest but it is need to develop a man. What protein is produced by the Y chromosome and how is it linked to testosterone?
Sry protein

Sry protein stimulates the medulla of the gonads to develop into testes. Testes secrete testosterone
Tanya Izrailev
What are the different kinds of hormones mentioned and the main ways they differ?
1. Steroid Hormones
2. Amino Acid/Peptide/Protein Hormones
The 2nd type are more widely produced, packaged, and released by a number of different brain and somatic structures.
Alexa Hon
What does the posterior pituitary release?
Releases stored Oxytocin and Vasopressin
Alexa Hon
What does the anterior pituitary release and how is it stimulated.
-stimulated by releasing hormones
-releases stimulating/trophic hormones which cause the release of hormones from other glands.
Alexa Hon
What two forms of thyroid hormone are secreted by the thyroid?
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
Alexa Hon
What are the 2 stages of hypothyroidism? Describe them.
Primary hypothyroidism: caused by failure of the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4; has various causes
Secondary hypothyroidism: caused by failure of the pituitary gland to produce TSH; cause is unknown but risk factors include family history, being female and being >50 years old.
Alexa Hon