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74 Cards in this Set

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1) Impoverished thinking marked by nonfluent/barren speech. 2) Loss of normal functions
1)Alogia 2)Negative symptoms
1) Distortion of normal functions, like psychosis 2) Remarkable reductions in the amount of speech 3) Shifting topics too abruptly
1) Positive symptoms 2) Poverty of speech. 3) Loose associations
1) Reduced responsiveness 2) Persistently repeatedly the same word or phrase over and over again.
1) stuporous state 2) Perseveration.
1) Prior to positive symptoms, marked by deterioration in role functioning: 2) Blunted affect
1) Prodromal phase 2) A flattening or restriction of a person's nonverbal display of emotion.
1) Replying to a question with an irrelevant response 2) Social causation hypothesis vs social selection
1) tangentiality 2) Harmful events associated w/ membership in the lowest social classes play a causal role in the development of schizophrenia. (vs. people with sch. experience downward social mobility)
1) Schizotaxia 2) Schizotypic signs
1) Subtle neurological defect in people predisposed to schiz. 2) Odd or eccentrif behaviors.
1) New forms of antipsychotic medication that do not produce extrapyramidal symptoms or tardive dyskinesia. 2) Side effects including muscular rigidity, tremors, restless agitation, peculiar involuntary postures, and motor inertia.
1) Atypical antipsychotics. 2) Extrapyramidal symptoms
1) Sch. characterized by psychotic symptoms but that does not fit any one subtypes 2) Antipsychotic medications that induce side effects that resemble the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
1) Undifferentiated type 2) Neuroleptic drugs.
1) An intervention combining psychological treatments w/ medication. 2) Schizophrenia characterized by systematic delusions w/ persecutory or grandiose content.
1) Assertive communication treatment. 2) Paranoid type
1) A specific measure that might be useful in identifying people who are vulnterable to a disorder. 2) Schizoaffective disorder
1) Vulnerability marker. 2) An episode of symptoms of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder.
1) Delusional disorder 2) Lifetime morbid risk
1) Does not meet the criteria of sch. but are preoccupied for at least one month w/ delusions that are not bizarre. 2) The proportion of a specific population that will be affected by a disorder at some point during their lives.
1) People who exhibit and manipulate information for a short period of time. 2) Endophenotypes 3) Tardive dyskinesia
1) Brief psychotic disorder. 2) Vulnerability markers. 3) A syndrome caused by prolongned treatment with neuroleptic drugs consisting of invol mov of the mouth/face as well as spasmodic mov of the limbs and trunk of body
1) One of the world's leading experts on genetic factors and sch. 2) Grouped together several psychotic disorders into the category of dementia. 3) Coined term sch. which means splitting of mental assoc
1) Gottesman 2) Kraeplin 3) Bleuler
1) Meehl: 2) Heston 3) Developed beh treatments for chronic sch patients
1) Proposed a theory of sch. involving schizotaxia. 2) Conducted first adoption study of sch. 3) Paul
1) Positive symptoms: 2) Research on sch twins and adopted-away offspring of sch suggests which of the following:
1) Hallucinations, delusions, disorg speech (an ex is tangentiality) 2) Vuln to sch is sometimes manifested by sch-like personality traits and non-sch psychotic disorders.
An interesting/consistent result is that: 2) Disorg speech:
1) enlarged lateral ventricles (with exceptions...) 2) Derailment, perseveration, tangentiality
1) Concordance rate for MZ twins for sch: 2) Gender diff:
1) 48% 2) Women typically display better premorbid social competence prior to their first episode of sch.
1) All people with sch respond to neuroleptic medic 2) Neuroletpic medic take: 3) Eye-tracking performance:
1) when given the correct dose. 2) weeks to work 3) may be assoc with a predisposition to sch.
1) Sch patients have worse performance: 2) People w/ sch are more likely to show a dec in size of:
1) working memory. 2) Left temporal lobe
1) An infec of the mem that line the brain, which can lead to inflammation that can damage the brain. 2) Cytomegalovirus
1) Meningitis 2) A rel common and usu harmless infec that can be passed to the fetus and can cause mental retardation.
1) Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: 2) Mental retardation
1) Characterized by mental retardation and self-mutilation. 2) Substantial limitations in present functioning char by significantly subavg intellectual func, limitations in adaptive skills, and an onset before 18.
1) Profound mental retardation 2) Syphillis
1) Motor skills, communic, and self-care are severely limited; constant supervision required. 2) A bacterial sexually-transmitted disease which if untreated can be passed to the fetus and can result in physical and sensory handicaps in the fetus, including mental retardation.
1) Toxoplasmosis 2) Intelligence quotient
1) A protozoan infec caused by ingestion of infected raw meats or from contact w/ infec cat feces that can cause brain damage to a fetus. 2) An intelligence test's rating of an indiv's intellectual ability.
1) Moderate mental retardation 2) Autistic spectrum disorders
1) Can generally function at the 2nd grade level acad, required close training and supervision in wk activities, and need family or group home supervision. 2) Pervasive devel disorders.
1) Rubella 2) PKU
1) aka German measles, a viral infection that can cause severe mental retardations or death in a fetus. 2) Caused by a rec gene, this disorder involves the absence of an enzyme that metabolizes pheny, which can lead to brain damage that results in mental retardation.
1) XYY syndrome: 2) Klinefelter syndrome
1) Once thought to inc criminality but now recog to be linked w/ social deviance and a mean 10 pt IQ lower than avg. 2) An extra X chromosome in males that leads to normal to mildly mentally retarded intellec functioning.
1) Hurler syndrome 2) A rare rec gene disorder that eventually results in death during the infant or preschool yrs that is particularly common among Jews of E. European heritage
1) Results in gross abnormalities, including dwarfism, humpback, bulging head, and clawlike hands. 2) Tay-Sachs disease
1) Can be transmitted to the baby at birth and cause mental retardation, blindness, or death. 2) Fetal alcohol syndrome
1) Genital herpes 2) A disorder char by retarded phy devel, small head, narrow eyes, cardiac defects, and cog impairment.
1) Mild mental retardation 2) Severe mental retardation
1) Can generally func at the 6th grade level acad, acquire vocational skills, and live in the community w/out special supports. 2) Typically have abnormally motor devel, sharply limited communicative speech, and req close supervision for community living.
1) Encephalitis 2) Down syndrome
1) A brain infection that can cause permanent brain damage in about 20% of cases. 2) A chromosomal disorder char by distinctively abnormal phy appearance and mental retardation typically in the mod to severe range.
1) Amniocentesis 2) Reaction range
1) A diag procedure in which fluid is extraced from the amniotic sac that protects the fetus and genetic tests are run on the fluid to identify genetic abnormalities. 2) Proposes that heredity determines the upper and lower limits of IQ and experience determines the extent to which people fulfill their genetic potential.
1) Echolalia 2) Anoxia 3) Mercury poisoning
1) A person's repetition of phrases that are spoken to them. 2) Oxygen deprivation that can lead to brain damage. 3) Can produce severe phy, emotional, and intellectual impairments.
1) Dysprosody 2) Heritability ratio
1) Disturbance in rate, rhythm, and intonation of speech production. 2) An index to measure the extent of genetic contribution to a characteristic
1) A disorder similar to autism but does not involve language delay 2) At least five months of normal devel followed by a decel of head growth, loss of purposeful hand movements, loss of social engagement and language decay
1) Asperger's disorder 2) Rett's disorder
**All antipsychotic mediations - both traditional and atypical forms:
Act by blocking dopamine receptors in the cortical and limbic areas of the brain. (Also serotonin, NE, and acetylcholine)
Many children w/ PDD:
Also cannot communicate. Are preoccupied w/ unus repetitive behavior. Most people w/ mental retardation learn the self-care and vocational skills that allow them to live in the community.
Major criteria for mental retardation:
1) sig limitations in intellectual functioning 2) sig limitations in adaptive functioning 3) onset before 18 yrs
Original developer of IQ tests: (early 1900s)
2) Conceptual skills:
1) Binet (potential for school achievement) 2) Community self-sufficiency, incorporate communication, fuctional academics, self-direction, and health and safety.
AAMR subclassification is ratings of four levels of: 2) DSM IV:
Intensity of needed support across nine different areas of functioning. 2) mild, moderate, severe, profound
Mental Retardation
Only 1% of the population; in the US it is more common among the poor (and certain ethnic groups). But with a specific cause such as Down syndrome it has equal prevalence among social classes.
Mental Retardation
About 1/2 of all cases of mental retardation are caused by known biol abnormalities. The most common known biol cause is Down syndrome. (By thirties most adults develop brain pathologies similar to that found in Alzheimer's)
Mental Retardation: Another common known genetic cause
Fragile X (not all have mental retardation). Abormalities of the sex chromosomes are particularly notable.
Head Start
1) The most important current secondary prevention effort; a federal intervention program begun in 1964.
Mental Retardation and medication
[Prior to 1975, only 1/2 of all children received an educ at public espense; Educ for All Handicapped Children Act, least restrictive environ]
1) Medication is not esp helpful in treating the intellectual or socioemotional problems; more helpful for phusical and sensory handicaps.
1) Deinstitutionalization
2) PDD
1) Begun in 1960s. 2) 54% w/ autism remain mute as do 35% w/ other PDD. Echolalia (repeat phrases) and pronoun reversal are common.
Autism: theory of mind
2) Childhood disintegrative disorder
1) Often lack a theory of mind: appreciating that others have a different pt of reference. Also emotional problems. 2) Poorly understood/controversial condition w/ severe problems in social interaction and communic, and stereotyped beh.
1) Autism
[Two devel periods esp important: early preschool yrs and early adolescence]
1) One study found over half the cases were assoc w/ various known biol difficulties; also genetic factors. Neurochemicals? Neuropeptides (affect nts; mediators of symptoms). Limbic sys.
1) Disturbance in rate, rhythm, and intonation of speech production. 2) At least five months of normal devel followed by a decel in head growth, loss of purposeful hand mov, loss of soc engagement, and lang decay.
1) Dysprosody 2) Rett's disorder.
1) First described autism. 2) Applied beh techniques to the management of people w/ autism.
1) Kanner 2) Lovaas
1) According to the AAMR, adaptive skills include: 2) Fragile X-syndrome is more likely to lead to mental retardation in boys than girls? 3) Rh incompatibility is only a potential danger to children of mothers who are:
1) conceptual, social, practical. 2) True 3) Rh negative
1) Premature birth is defined either as a birth weight of less than 5.5 lbs or as birth before: 2) Almost __ of all children in the US are born to teenage mothers. 3) Severe mental retardation accounts for...
1) 38 wks of gestation. 2) 10% 3) 3-4% of the mentally retarded.
1) Mental retardation is coded on: 2) An outdated term for hyperactivity: 3) A lack of soc responsiveness found in infants w/out a consistent attachment figure.
1) Axis II 2) hyperkinesis 3) Anaclitic depression.
1) Characterized by severely disturbed and devel inappropriate social relationships. 2)A laboratory task that requires the subject to monitor and respond to numbers or letters presented on a computer screen.
1) Reactive attachment disorder. 2) Continuous performance test
1) Self-stimulation or self-injurious beh that is serious enough to require treatment. 2) An anxious att where the infant responds inconsistently b/c of conflicting feelings toward an inconsis caregiver who is the source of both reassurance and fear.
1) Stereotypic movement disorder. 2) Disorganized attachments.
1) Parenting that is unconcerned w/ both the child's emotional needs and the needs for discipline. 2) Learning to identify, evaluate, and control one's feelings based on the reactions, attitudes, and advice of others in the social world.
1) Neglectful parenting. 2) Emotion regulation.
1) Keeping problem youths out of the juvenile justice sys. 2) An anxious att where the infant is generally unwary of strange situations and shows little preference for the att figure over others.
1) Diversion. 2) Anxious avoidant attachments.
1) Writing problems. 2) Arithmetic problems. 3) Reading problems.
1) Dysgraphia. 2) Discalculia. 3) Dyslexia.
1) Rutter. 2) Patterson.
1) Developed the family adversity index. 2) Dev the concept of coercion.
1) What percentage of arrests for index offenses are juveniles under 21 yrs? 2) Third leading cause of death among teenagers: 3) Children w/ serious conduct problems often had this type fo parenting:
1) 30% 2) suicide. 3) Neglectful.
1) Aggressive children demonstrate immaturity in: 2) __ is thought to have environ origins, while __ is thought to have a biol cause:
1) moral devel 2) ODD; ADHD
1) Looking back on one's life w/ either a sense of acceptance and pride or anger and despair. 2) The changing roles and relationships of later life.
1) Integrity and despair. 2) late adult transition.
1) Having questioned one's identity but not idenity but not actively searching for new adult roles. 2) A nonrandom assoc btwn inborn char and environ experience
1) Identity diffusion. 2) Gene-environ correl.
1) An attempt to achieve a sense of self-worth, coherence, and reconciliation w/ the past. 2) Includes both direct moral instruc and storytelling w/ clear moral implications; serve the function of passing on cultureal heritage and personal legacy.
1) Integrative reminiscence 2) Transitive reminiscence.
1) Adults roughly btwn 75-85; suffer from major physical, psy, or social problems and require same routine assistance in living. 2) The review of goal-directed activities and attainments reflecting a sense of control and success in overcoming life's obstacles.
1) Old-old adults. 2) Instrumental reminiscence.
1) Theorized that people have needs to move toward, to move away from, and to move against others. 2) Widened the emphasis of adult devel to social as well as psy tasks. 3) Focused on communic patterns in marital interaction.
1) Horney 2) Levinson 3) Gottman
1) V codes in the DSM-IV:
1) They do not include an extensive summary of life difficulties, they include issues such as bereavement, identity problems, and phase of life problems.
1) The principle for determining insanity of whether the person is prevented from knowing the wrongfulness of his/her actions by a mental disease or defect. 2) The idea that an accused person is not criminally responsible if the unlawful act was the product of a mental disease or defect.
1) M'Naghten test. 2) Product test.
1) The degree of certainty required. 2) The principle that people could be found insane if they were unable to control their actions b/c of mental disease. 3) Police power
1) Standard of proof. 2) Irrestible impulse test. 3) The state's duty to protect the public safety, health, and welfare.
1) Laws designed to keep sexual offenders imprisoned indefinitely. 2) Negligence
1) Sexual predator laws. 2) When a professional fails to perform in a manner that is consistent w/ the level of skill exercised by other professionals in the field.
1) Researched the relation btwn violence and mental illness, and predicting dangerousness. 2) Wrote about battered child syndrome. 3) Asserted that the concept of mental illness is a myth, and argued that abnormal beh must be defined relative to some social or moral standard.
1) Monahan. 2) Kempe 3) Szasz 4) Walker
1) The irrestible impulse test and the product test: 2) Percent of the mentally disturbed have no history of violence:
1) Broadened the grounds for det insanity. 2) 90%
1) Wyatt v. Stickney established: 2) Lake v Cameron
that hospitalized mental patients have right to treatment. 2) Est the patient's right to be treated in the least restrictive environ.
1) O'Connor v Donaldson 2) Stages of Walker's stages of the cycle of violence:
1) Ruled that a state could not confine a non-dangerous indiv who is capable fo surviving safely on his/her own w/ the help of willing and responsible family members/friends. 2) Battering incident, tension-building phase, loving contrition.
1) The acquittal of Hinckley prompted: 2) Over 1/2 of all reports of child abuse: 3) Assoc w/ the product test:
1) GBMI verdict, revised definition of insanity defense, shifting of the burden of proof from the prosecution to the defense in fed courts. 2) Are unsubstaniated after investiations. 3) Durham v US