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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Scientist-Practitioner Model
Academic psychologists are researchers and teachers first (developmental, social etc.)
Clinical psychologists as scientist-practitioners
Science informs practice (at least is should)
Practice source of hypotheses for science
Practice should be like science (develop hypotheses, test them) Detective work!
Types of Mental Health Professionals
Clinical psychologists – Ph.D.; research; 6 years grad school; 1 year internship
Psychiatrists – M.D.; medication; 4 years med school; 3 or more years residency
Social workers – MSW, DSW; community focus; 2 years (more for DSW)
Counselors – usually education schools; specializations (e.g., marriage/family); 2 years
School psychologists, nurse practitioners etc
Inquiring Skeptic 101
Do vaccines cause autism?
Do antidepressants cause teen suicide?
Are “recovered memories” of abuse real?
Does “facilitated communication” work?
Is depression located in the brain?
Does masturbation make you crazy? (Idea arose about 300 years ago
Accepted fact 150 years ago
Still around in the 1930s)
Does masturbation make you crazy?
Sexuality, Catholic Church in Europe
Onania or the Heinous Sin of Self-Pollution
Tissot and other authorities – Benjamin Rush, William Maudesly, Sigmund Freud
A theory: Blood drawn away from the brain!!
Research evidence
Case studies
Treatments – castration, clitorectomy
Prevention! Treatments failed
Theory failed.
Logic. Correlation and causation. Comparison groups (normal behavior).
Research Methods/Critical Thinking
Does the measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine cause autism?
Contained mercury compound (thimerosal)Speculation/hypothesis
Wakefield et al (1998). Lancet
Original on class homepage
Case studies good for generating hypotheses but not for proving hypotheses. But: Madsen et al. (2002). New England Journal of Medicine
Null hypothesis and burden of proof
Burden of proof is on proponent of any hypothesis
Science: Not true until proven true
Analogies to law
Innocent until proven guilty
Cannot accept the null hypothesis
Not guilty NOT innocent
Key to science
Different in law – double jeopardy
What Is Abnormal?
Examples (case studies useful for this)
Anxiety disorders (agoraphobia with panic)
Mood disorders (bipolar disorder)
Schizophrenia (first case in Chapter 1)
No lab test
Diagnosis is imperfect
Diagnosis can be political
Politics and Defining Mental Disorders
Illness or Moral Failing??
Insanity – John Hinckley; Andrea Yates
Alcoholism (Eating disorder etc?)
Conduct disorder
Congressman Mark Foley…
Childhood abuse by priest??
2) Guild? 3) Myth?
2) Identity disorder
Developmental coordination disorder
Learning disorder 3) Rosenhan,
Science: On Being Sane in Insane Places
Variation on Normal?
Not them but all of us?
Understand some symptoms (e.g., depression)
Categories versus dimensions
Or difference of kind vs. degree
Or qualitative vs. quantitative differences
Pregnancy vs. height. Labels and treatments are categorical
Credit/no credit in class
Diagnosis (PTSD?)
Treatment (Medication for depression, ADHD)
Learning disability case
1) Epidemiology
2) Prevalence
1) The scientific study of the freq and distrib of disorders w/in a popul. 2) The total number of active cases of a disorder present in a popul during a specific per of time.
1) Psychosis
2) Psychopathology
3) Abnormal psy
1) A state of being profoundly out of touch w/ reality. 2) The manifestations of and study of the causes of mental disorders. 3) The application of psy science to the study of mental disorders.
1) Syndrome 2) Am approach to defining whether a condition is a mental disorder in terms of its harm to the person and whether the condit results from the inability of sme mental mech to perform its mental function.
1) A group of symptoms that appear together and are assumed to rep a specific type of disorder. 2) Harmful dysfunction
1) Hippocrates 2) Argued that mental disorders could be traced to immoral beh, stress or improper living condit; optimistic about curing mental illnesses.
Saw mental disorders as diseases having natural causes, like other forms of phy diseases. 2) Samuel Woodward.
1) Jerome Wakefield 2) The DSM-IV-TR defines mental disorder in terms of personal...
1) Proposed the harmful dysfunction approach to defining mental disorder. 2) distress; functioning, risk of harm.
1) Much of our current estimates of the prevalence of mental disorder is based on the: 2) Epid studies indicate the percentage of people had at least one disorder at one time in their life.
1) ECA 2) 32%
1) The concept of disease burden combines which two factors? 2) mental disorders produce 47% of all:
1) mortality and disability 2) disabilities
1) Saw masturbation among other "morally objectionable" beh as the cause of: 2) Fever therapy involved:
1) Woodward. 2) Malaria
Disorganized speech 2) Psychopathology
A type of formal thought disorder characterized by significant disruptions of verbal communication. 2) Pathology of the mind
1) A mental disorder is typically defined by: 2) Not psychotic symptom.
1) A set of characteristic features. 2) Depression
1) Defense mechanisms 2) The mode of operation for the ego, where the need to gratify impulses is balanced with demands of reality.
1) Unconscious processes that reduce conscious anxiety by distorting anxiety-laden memories, emotions, and impulses. 2) Reality principle
1) The cause of abnormal behavior. 2) General paresis
1) Etiology 2) A disorder w/ delusions of grandeur, dementia, and progressive paralysis; progressively worsens, ending in death; caused by untreated syphilis.
1) Cognitive behavioral paradigm. 2)A psychoanalytic diagnostic category involving the conversion of psy conflicts into physical symptoms.
1) Asserts that beh is learned and examines the processes underlying learning. 2) Hysteria, now categorized as conversion disorder.
1) The use of diff perspectives, subsystems, or lenses to conceptualize causal factors. 2) Response cost
1) levels of analysis 2) When the removal of a stimulus decreases the freqency of the beh.
1) Viewing psy illness as the same as phy illness. 2) Systems theory
1) Medical model. 2) A paradigm that emphasizes interdependence, cybernetics, and holism.
1) Pavlov 2) A learning theory asserting that beh is a function of its conseq; that beh inc if it is rewarded and decreases if it is punished.
1) Classical 2) operant conditioning.
1) When the intro of a stimulus dec the freq of a beh 2) Premorbid history
1) Punishment 2) The pattern of beh preceding the onset of the disorder.
1) Bidirectional causality 2) The same psy disorder may have diff causes 3) The same event can lead to diff outcomes
1) Reciprocal causality 2) equifinality 3) multifinality
1) Developmental psychopathology 2) Age-graded averages
1) An approach to abnormal psy that emphasizes the importance of age-graded avg and determining what constitutes abnormal beh. 2) Developmental norms
1) Causation operates in one direction only. 2) A brain grouping including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. 3) Limbic sys
1) Linear causality 2) Hindbrain 3) Regulates emotion and basic learning processes.
Not one cause of psychological problems
Bottom Line
Systems Theory
Multiple causes despite what some claim about
Chemical imbalances etc
Multiple contributions (risk factors)
“Lifestyle illness”
So are heart disease, cancer etc
-Holism (versus reductionism)
Levels of analysis – Martian scientists
Equifinality—multiple pathways to same destination
Multifinality—same event has multiple effects
Reciprocal causality
Diathesis-stress model
Historical Theories
Paradigms. Psychological paradigms include:
Assumptions about human nature
Assumptions about causation
Assumptions about appropriate treatment
Assumptions about how to do research
Freudian theory
Structure of personality
Sex and aggression
More conscious; defense mechanisms
Neurotic anxiety
Moral anxiety
Some defense mechanisms
The unconscious
Psychosexual development
Psychoanalysis (Chap 3)
Case studies
Untestable theory
In decline
Important for literary criticism!
Need to Know
Neuron and neuronal transmission
MAJOR brain structures
- Behavior genetics
Study of genetic contributions to complex behavior
Focus on individual differences
But people share 99.9% of genes with each other

It’s Genetic” What Does That Mean?
Behavior genetics
Study of genetic contributions to complex behavior
Focus on individual differences
But people share 99.9% of genes with each other
Evolutionary psychology
Study of genetic contributions to species typical behavior
Focus on shared motivations and behavior
People share 98% of genes with chimpanzees
Psychological Disorders Rarely Show Mendelian Inheritance
Huntington’s disease (dominant gene)
Phenylketonuria PKU) (recessive genes; environment too)
Polygenic Inheritance
Most disorders (and characteristics) are polygenic (multiple genes) (
Depression, ADHD, intelligence
Height of peas is polygenic; Mendel’s experiments wouldn’t have worked…
Polygenic = quantitative
not qualitative differences
not categories
Dimensions vs. Categories
What do you think when someone says, “It’s genetic”?
“Genetic” does not mean categorical
You can be “a little bit depressed”
We always face issue of where to draw line between normal and abnormal for dimensional problems like depression
Treatment decisions are categorical (take medication)
Behavior Genetic Methods
Fraternal twins
Full brothers/sisters
Parent/child --> 50%
First cousins -->Third degree relative, 12.5%
Second cousins-->Fourth degree relative, 6.25%
Behavior Genetic Methods
Family studies
“It runs in families” does not mean genetic
Families share genes and environment
Adoption studies (important but harder)
Twins studies – compare MZ and DZ
All genes MZ = 1; DZ = .5
All shared environment MZ, DZ = 1
All nonshared environment MZ, DZ = 0
Divorce is Genetic (?)
McGue & Lykken – twin study
722 MZ twins; 794 DZ twins
Risk of divorce if MZ divorced = .45
Risk of divorce if DZ divorced = .30
Heritability of divorce = .525
What Does This Mean?
Divorce probably is genetic
But what is the mechanism?
A divorce gene? No!
A personality characteristic? In part (antisocial behavior and rule violation)
Many factors, maybe including things like age a menarche, physical appearance, etc
Our study of menarche and stepfather presence
Genes and Environment
(Characteristic can be “Genetic” while Group Differences are Environmental)
Mechanism – think about same issues for depression, eating disorders etc
Not necessarily a “gene for X disorder”
Heritability ratio – false dichotomy
Genetic” does not mean “predetermined”
“Genetic” means predisposition
The American Dream (equal environments)
Would lead to GREATER genetic effects
Sexist/racist concerns
The Bell Curve – Murray spoke here a few years ago…
By the way, racial differences are shrinking…
Eugenics – Our History of Shame
Promotion of “good breeding” in the human stock
Dates to Frances Galton – 1883
Strongly influenced by Darwin’s idea
Positive eugenics
Encourage desirables to bear children
Negative eugenics
Prevent undesirables from having children
Nazi Germany
20th Century U.S. social policy
Eugenics – Right Here in Cville
“Three generations of imbeciles is enough!” Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in Buck v Bell, 1927
60,000 forced sterilizations
Miller & Keller – discussing “isms”
“Biological” disorder does not mean only effective treatment is biological (or vice versa)
Healthy lifestyle, stress reduction helps heart disease, diabetes
Pain relievers help tension headaches
Depression is not (necessarily) a “chemical imbalance” requiring medication
Behaviorism didn’t make biology extinct; biology isn’t going to make psychology go away
Different levels
Although one level not necessarily reducible to other
de Waal – Evolutionary Psychology
“Looking at the social sciences as a relative outsider, I see thousands of ideas that are barely interconnected.”
Just because something exists, doesn’t mean it’s adaptive
Account of abnormal behavior incomplete without account of normal behavior
How modular is the modular mind?
Question is not: How are humans and animals different? Question is: How are humans and other animals alike?
Turkheimer – behavior genetics
All behavioral traits are affected by genes
Family effects are smaller than genetic effects (shared environment)
Much variation is not accounted for by either genes or families (nonshared environment)
This is his “gloomy prospect” for psychology
[Taylor and Luce (Treatment chapter)
Range of internet treatments
Exciting… but early stages
Psychotherapy Outcome Research 1) Meta-analysis 2) Spontaneous remission
A means of combining results from different studies
“Psychotherapy” helps 2 out of 3 (see Figure 3-2)
Emery: The “Chicken McNugget” problem
Spontaneous remission
How many people improve without treatment? 1/3?
Is talking to friend, parent, professor therapy?
Placebo effect; Double blind study
Placebo effect
Placebo = sugar pill; a treatment without active ingredients
Need placebo control groups to measure real effects
What is a placebo psychotherapy?
Double blind study
Patients’ and therapists’ expectations affect outcomes
Double blind = neither knows if treatment is real
Can therapists be “blind” to their treatment?
Allegiance effect; Efficacy (can it work) versus effectiveness (does it work in real world
Allegiance effect
Treatments work better if researcher believes in treatment (not double blind)
Comparing rival therapies and rival therapists
Efficacy (can it work) versus effectiveness (does it work in real world
How much does commitment and enthusiasm affect outcome in therapy? (A lot…)
Psychotherapy process research
Common factors versus active ingredients
Empathy, warmth, genuineness: Rogers
Persuasion and social influence: Frank
Some specifics: Table 3-4
One way to think about this:
Placebos change through psychological means
Placebos aren’t placebos in psychotherapy
We need to understand how placebos work and put them to use
The “bible” of mental health professionals
Categorical classification system
Descriptive diagnosis to maximize reliability
Atheoretical and sometimes controversial list
Homosexuality, identity disorder, developmental coordination disorder
Binge eating disorder?
DSM V (coming around 2010)
Criteria for grouping
Appearance is only one basis for classification, perhaps not the most useful one
Reliability – repeatability
Inter-rater reliability key for diagnosis
Is 82% agreement a good rating?
Kappa correction (Subtracting chance agreement from reliability)
Coverage – Omit things? Include too much?
Family diagnoses (Reliability?)
Personality disorders (They stump me.)
Pain – disorders aren’t everything
25% of people who seek treatment do not meet diagnostic criteria for any mental disorder
Dimensions versus categories
Are psychological disorders qualitative or quantitatively different from normal experience?
Where do we draw the line dividing normal and abnormal?
Validity – Accuracy and value in relation to some criterion
Etiological validity
Concurrent validity
Predictive validity (treatment response, course). Should we classify people?
Labeling – a bad thing and a good thing
Self-fulfilling prophesy, stigmatizing, label disorder not individual
Common language, value for treatment, having a diagnosis can be reassuring
Bottom Line
DSM is a useful if imperfect system of classification
Future surely will bring many changes
That’s why understanding principles is important
Whatever the system…
We need to be sensitive to fact that we’re classifying people not things
Assessment Summary
Interview is most common tool
Standardized interviews increase reliability
Behavioral observations
Less biased, less complete, less interesting
Projective tests
Something to projection; not a test (even though people love a mystery)
Rating scales
Do psychological lie detectors work? (imperfect at best)