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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nature Vs. Nurture
Whether generic or environmental factors are more important determinants of development and behavior
Continuous Vs. Discontinuous
Continuous- Augmenting same types of skills that were there to begin with
Discontinuous- New ways of responding and understanding to the worldemerge at specific times.
Normative Approach to studying Child Development
measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individulas, and age related averages are computed to represent typical development.
Freud's Theory
Three Parts of Personality
Id- Source of basic biological need and desires
Ego- Conscious, rational part of personality, redirects id's impulses so that they are discharged in acceptable ways
Superego- interactions with parents, children conform to the valus of society.
Freud's Theory
Psychosexual Thoery
Oral, (birth-1year) Sucking activites towards breast or bottle.
Anal, (1-3years) Toliet training becomes a major issue between parent and child.
Phallic, (3-6years) Child finds pleasure in genital stimulation.
Latency, (6-11years) Sexual instincts die down, superego developes further, new social values
Genital, (adoloescence) Puberty causes the sexual impulses of the phallic stage to reappear, leads to mature sexuality, marriage, birth and rearing of children.
Erikson's Theory
Psychosocial stages
Trust Vs Mistrust (Oral) (brith-1year) infants gain a sense of trust that the world is good, mistrust comes when the infant has to wait too long for comfort.
Autononmy V.s Shame and doubt (1-3years) (Anal)- Children want to choose and decide for themselves. Autononmy, free choice leads to no force or shame on child
Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6years) (phallic) make believe play they experiment who they become. responsibility, ambition. too much control leads to guilt.
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-11years) (genital) ability to work with others, inferiority- negative exp at home school leads to incompetence
Identity vs. Identity confusion (adoloscence) (Genital) Who am i? place in society? negative outcome is confucion about future adult roles
Intimacy vs. Isolation (emerging adulthood) est. intimate ties with others, those who cannot are isolated.
Generativity Vs. Stagnation (adulthood) giving to the next generation. failing to do so results in stagnation.
Integrity Vs. Despair (Old age) reflect on the kind of person you have become, dissatisfied fear death and despair.
Psychoanalytic Theory
Strenghts and weaknesses
Strenght- emphasis on the individuals unique likfe history as worthy of study and understanding.
Weakness- psychoanalytic perspective is no longer in the mainstream of child development research.
Behavioral/ Learning Theories
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov- salvation.
Watson- little albert, loud sound
stimulus with another and transfer the response from one stimulus to another unconditioned stimulus.
Behavorial/learning theories
Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement- make stronger.
any consequence to behavior to strenghten it.
Punishment- decrese probability of behavior, any consequence to weaken- yelling.
Behavorial/Learning theories
Social Learing
Observation and imitation, young watch and imitate what others do. requires thought preocessing.
Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory
Sensorimotor Stage-(brith-2years) Sensory exp. hear some sounds, recognize smell, taste, body movements
Preoperational stage(2-7yrs) thinking becomes symbolic, language, set of symbols
Concrete operations(7-11yrs) thinking becomes logical, reversable thinking, story-beg-middle, end
Formal Operations(11/15yrs-adulthood) thinking is abstract, direct concrete exp, not necessary for understanding.
Ethological theory
Critical periods- limited time span in which something must develop, (legs, in prenatal dev)
Sensitive period- Time spans are longer, boundries, are more flexbile (language dev)
Bronfendrenner's Ecological Theory, Environmental levels
Microsystem- immediate physical setting, childs family, 1stgrade classroom,neighborhood.
Mesosystem- Relationship b/w diff. mircosystems
Exosystem- Gov't laws, work sched, healthcare,
Macrosystem- Persons culture, values, laws, transferred from generation to generation
Chronosystem- historical/environmental events that effect children, 9/11, iraqi war, hurrican katrina.
Vygotsky's Theory
Society and culture are important in shaping cognitive development, language-tool to communicate.
Developmental designs in psychology
Cross sectional- study diff age group at the same time.
Longitudinal design- Same group over a long period of time
Sequential design- Diff age groups and follow for a long period of time
Microgenetic design- Short span of time, analyze emotion after a few seconds
Ch 2
Canalization
restric development of some characteristics to one or a few outcomes.
Ch 2.
Heterozygous
2 diff allels at the same place on a pair of chromosomes
Ch 2
dyzygotic twins
Fraternal twins
Ch 2
genes
segment of DNA containing hereidty instructions
Ch 2
Homozygous
2 identical allels at the same place on a pair of chromsomes
Ch2
monozygotic twins
Identical Twins
Ch2
Chromosomes
transmit genetic information
Ch 2
genotype
Acutal genes that a person has
Ch2
Zygote
newly fertilized cell formed at conception
Ch 2
allels
two forms of a gene located at the same place on the autosomes
Ch2
phenotype
expression of traits
seen in phycials app. or behavior
Ch2
Patterns of genetic inheritance
Dominant- determine expression of traits
Recessive- Expressed when both are together
Codominance-both traits expressed, one brown eye one blue eyPolygenic- genes work together to influence traits.
Ch 2
Chromosomal Abnomalities
Down syndrome- extra chromosomla activity on #21, rish increase with age
Triple X(XXX) Women has 3 X's rather than two. tendency to be taller
Klinefelter syndrome- 2 x's along with Y, dont develop properly
Turner Syndrome- girl gets 1 x instead of 2, webbed neck.
Ch 2
Prenatal Diagnostic methods
Amniocentesis- analyze for speech defects
Chorionic Villus- get sample of chorion, sample defects
Ultrasound- emits radiowaves,pic, sonogram. looks for structural defects.
Fetoscopy- magnifies more detalied look at the baby
Maternal blood analysis- look for elevated levels of alpha feto protein, if high defects are probable.
Ch 2
Inpact of Poverty on Development
Physical development- malnutrition. dont recieve nutrition they need to grow. lower Iq scores, stress on parents, rate high among youngsingle mothers with children under the age of 5
Ch 2
Socioeconomic Status
SES
based on income, education, job status. Diff in family size,diff in values, white colar jobs, diff in discipline, blue colar- spending, white colar- less used to harsh punishment
Ch 2
Children in towns and cities
Children in large cities have more acess to a varity of cultural events, children in small towns are likely to remain invloved in their communities, even as adults.
Ch 2
Reaction Range
Range in which enviorment has an impact. someone with tall genes who grows up with adequate nutrition vs someone with tall genes who grows up in a poor country with less food available.
Ch2
Environmental Correlations
Passive- Parents genes influence environment that they provide for their children
Evocative- childs genes that evoke certain reations from environment
Active- Childs genes influence chils choice of environment
Shared- siblings have in common, house schoo, vacations, neighborhood etc..
non shared- siblings do not share, rooms, toys, friends
Ch 3
phases/subperiods of prenatal development
Germinal (2weeks) conception, fertilization, cell division, blastocyst, trophoblast
Implantation 7-10weeks, spontaneous abortions occur
Embyonic period- 2-8 weeks, ectoderm forms-nervous system and skin parts
Fetal period 8-36weeks-movements felt by mother, respond to light and sounds.vernix forms
third trimester- fetus gains weight, gains lenght, fat forms
Ch3
teratorgen
any environmental agent that causes a birth defect
Ch 3
types of teratogens
drugs FAS, hormones androgens, radiation x-rays, pollution lead, disease viral, exercise , malnutrition proper nutrition, rh factor factor in blood, age chromosomal abnormalities.
Ch 4
3 stages of childbirth
Labor- contractions, painful as time goes on, dialation of cervex. 12-14 hrs
Delivery- Crowning, baby completley out. 50min
Afterbirth- placenta is expelled. 5-10 min
Ch 4
new born appearence
large head, big eyes, short lets, bowed.
20 inches long, 7.5 lbs
APGAR Scale
Asses newborns health
given 1minafter birth and 5min after birth
Heart rate, repiration, reflex, irratibility, muscle tone, body color.
socre-0,1,2 on each category
total score0 7+ good
3-6= risk for problems
below 3= emergency
Ch4
Medications used for labor and delivery
Analgesics- pain relieving drugs , tylenol, asprin.
Epidural- under the skin
Anesthetics- sensation blocking drugs
Tranqulizers-oxytocin- regulates contractions.
Ch4
Cesarean Section
Surgical removal of baby from womb. recovery period is longer
Ch4
Anoxia
Decrease in levels of xygen
caussed from smoking inhalation. dizziness, sweating, increase breathing rate
Ch 4
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
breathing problem affetced 6 or more weeks before their due dates. Lungs arent devloped enough to make surfaktant. (coats the inside of lungs and keeps them opened.)
Ch4
Low birthweight Infants
less than 5 lbs at full term
risk for develpomental problems, deafness, blindness etc..
ch4
Preterm infants
born 3 or more weeks before 38, 35 or less. developmental problems, ill, high stung, irratibility, high pitched cries...
Ch 4
Small for date infant
small for their gestational age, high risk for developmental problems, poor motor skills, physical dissabilities, blind, deaf, mental retardation ADD,
ch 4
Newborn reflexes
Sucking-birth-4mos.
rooting-birth-3weeks, stroke cheek, baby turns head
Eye blink- life long-
tonic Neck- bith 4mos- eye hand coordination
palmar grasp-birth 3/4mos-anything that touchesd babies hand
Babinski-Birth 8/12mos-touch bottom of foot, fan toes out and turn inward (feet)
Maro- birth-60mos- startle reflex,loud sound, change in position
Stepping-birth-3mos- feet placed on table, slowly tap
swmming-birth4-6mos- make swmming movements in water

most dissappear within the first year, few remain life long, blinking, coughing, yanwing. some get body ready for future skill (motor skills)
Ch4
Sensory Capabilities of Newborns
Taste- prefer sweet taste
Smell- have prefrences, recognize mother if breastfed
touch- sensitivity evident in reflex, to pain, and cold temperatures
Hearing- human voice, turn towards it, high pitched voices, mother voice.
Vision- visual acuity, 20-600
cones arent functional until 4mos, track moving objects
Ch 4
Various states of Arousal/consciousness
sleep 16-18hrs a day
NonREM/regular sleep
REM/irregular sleep.
drowsy-half awake half sleep
quiet alertness- wide awake.
working activity- crying, moving
Ch 4
Babies Cries
First mode of cumminication.
indicates physical need.
basic-phsical need,
angry- forceful, loud
pian- sudden, loud
contagion- contagious
colic- lasting for hours
ch4
Brazelton’s Neonatal Behavioral Assessment
examines: reflex, motor abilities, state changes, responses to stimuli. low score indicates brain damage.