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25 Cards in this Set

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attachment
close, enduring emotional bonds to parents or other primary carefivers.
Bowlby's attachment theory
theory based on John bowlby's work that posits that children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with carefivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival.
secure base
term for when an attachment figure's presence provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the infant to explore the environment
Bowlby's 4 phase of attachment
1) preattachment - crying to create attn and is confronted by the ensuing interaction
2) attachment-in-the-making - respond to familiar ppl. form expectations about how their carefivers will respond to their needs
3) Clear-cut attachment - see contact w/their regular caregivers. happy to greet mom, separation protest or distress when departs
4) Reciprocal relationships - increase cognitive and language abilities enable them to understand their parents' feelings, goals, motives
internal working model of attachment
a mental representation of the self, of attachment figures, and of relationships in general. based on the child's early experiences with their caregivers, discovering the extent to which the caregiver could be depended upon. continue to guide the ind's expectations about relationships throughout life.
Strange Stituation
a procedure developed by mary ainsworth to assess infants' attachment to their primary caregiver
securely attached
infant/child has a high-qualtiy, relatively unambivalent relationship with his or her attachment figure. ie. Strange Situation: maybe upset when the care giver leaves but maybe happy to see the caregiver return, recovering quickly from any distress. uses caregiver as support base for exploration
insecure attachment
attachment in which children have a less positive attachment to their caregiver than do securely attached children. 3 categories: 1) insecure/resistant(ambivalent), insecure/avoidant, or disorganized/disoriented
insecure/resistant (ambivalent) attachment
children are clingy and stay close to their caregiver rather than exploring their environment. in SS, insecure/resistant infants tend to get very upset when the caregiver leaves them and are not readily comforted by strangers. When caregiver returns, they are not easily comforted and both seek comfort and resist efforts by the caregiver to comfort them.
insecure/avoidant attachment
children seem somewhat indifferent toward their caregiver and maybe evne avoid the caregiver. In ss, they seem indiff towards their caregiver before the caregiver leaves the room and indiff or avoidant when the caregiver returns. esily comforted by a stranger
disorganized/disoriented attachment
infants have no consisten way of coping with the stress of the SS. Their beh. is often confused or even contradictory, and they often appear dazed or disoriented.
parental sensitivity
importan to the security of an infant's attachment. it can be exhibited in a variety of ways: responsive caregiving when children are distressed or upset and helping children to engage in learning situations by providing just enough, but not too much, guidance and supervision
self
a conceptual system made up of one's thoughts and attitudes about oneself
personal fable
a story that adolescents overly differntiate their feeligns from those of others and come to regard themselves, and especially their feelings, as unique and special.
imaginary audience
the belief that everyone else is focused on the adolescent's appearance and behavior.
identity versus identity confusion
erikson's psychosocial stage of development that occurs during adolescence. during this stage, the adolescent of young adult either develops an identity or experiences an incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self
identity confusion
an incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self. - feel lost, isolate, and depressed, as well as uncertain about who they are.
identity foreclosure
commit themselves prematurely to an identity without adequately considering their choices
negative identity
represents the opposite of what is valued by people around the adolescent
psychosocial moratorium
a time out period during which the adolescent is not expected to take on adult roles and can pursue activities that lead to self-discovery. often a luxury reserved for the middle and upper classes.
Identity-diffusion status
the ind does not have firm commitments regarding the isues in question and is not making progress toward them. by James Marcia
Foreclosure status
ind has not engaged in any identit experimentation and has established a vocational or ideological identity based on the choices or values of others
Moratorium statues
ind is exploring various occupational and ideological choices and has not yet made a clear commitment to them
Identity-achievement status
ind has achieved a coherent and consolidated identity based on personal decisions regarding occupation, ideology, and the like. the ind. believes that these decisions were made autonomously and is committed to them.
four identity-status categories
1) identity-diffusion status
2) foreclosure status
3) Moratorium status
4) Identitiy-achievement status