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17 Cards in this Set

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validity
the extent to which a test or procedure measures the phenomenon it's supposed to measure
four types of validity
statistical
construct
external
internal
statistical validity
accuracy of conclusions drawn from a statistical test

(NOTE: to enhance statistical validity, must meet critical assumptions of a statistical procedure)
"p < .05"
this means that you will be rejecting the null hypothesis incorrectly 5% of the time
construct validity
validity of a theory--that the theory explains the nature of the data we analyze
external validity
can results be generalized to other conditions outside the set of participants tested on
internal validity
ensures that the IV did cause a change in the DV and not something else

(NOTE: must eliminate confounds that subtract from potential explanatory power of the IV)
confound
a major threat, or uncontrolled variable, that might affect the outcome (or validity) of a study
maturation confound
DV changes occur solely as a result of participants growing older or more experienced
Particularly relevant to longitudinal studies
history confound
DV changes due to variation in events outside the study's IV effects
food intake during the holidays
testing confound
participants show DV changes due to practice in repeated measures
Ex: Exam II scores higher than Exam I
instrumentation confound
DV changes due to the measuring instrument's variability
Ex: variable scales, timers
regression to the mean confound
the effect of initially high scorers showing score reductions and initially low scorers showing score increases--more extreme to less extreme
selection confound
result of groups not randomly selected and assigned to groups; they're unequivalent

cause in change of DV unknown
Ex: use of intact groups (sororities, schools)
attrition confound
participants drop out differentially across groups, causing biased results
diffusion of treatment confound
participants in different experimental conditions share info from their manipulation and reduce experimental differences across groups
sequence effects (confound)
in REPEATED measures design, or WITHIN-SUBJECTS design, participants are exposed to different experimental conditions, but the order is constant; changes in DV MAY be caused by the ORDER of the presentation and not the condition