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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
MONISM
MIND AND BRAIN ARE THE SAME THING,THERES NOTHING SPECIAL TO SEPARATE THEM FROM EACH OTHER. mind is product of actvity in the brain and NS
DUALSIM
soul (nonmaterial) and brain (matter). body is mechanistic and mind is separate and nonphysical
DESCARTES
FATHER OF DUALISM
IDEA OF FLUIDS PRODUCING MOVEMENT
CREATED IDEA OF MIND-BODY DUALISM
describe the support for monism
modern neurosciences use monism rather than dualism.
personality, memory, etc are all activity of the brain.
fritsch and hitzig
localization of motor function in the cerebral cortex
Broca
localization of speech production
Galvani
electricity transmits messages in the nervous system
histology
the study of cells and tissues on the microscopic level
computerized tomography (ct)
imaging technology in which computers are used to enhance xray images
positron emission tomography (pet)
shows what activity is happening in the brain. 1st one to do this
magnetic response imaging (mri)
very high-resolution images
uses magnetism and radio freq waves
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
studies activity of brain through recordings from electrodes placed on the scalp
lesion and why they are used
pathological or traumatic damage to tissue from stroke or accident.
used to determine the function of an area
brain stimulation: why its used
we do this to localize functions within the brain and nervous system. you artificially stimulate an area to see what happens. this creates a map of functions.
asomatagnosia (the man who fell out of bed)
damage to the parietal lobe
didnt recognize his own leg
ablation
the surgical removal of tissue
twin studies
studying contributions of genetic and nongenetic factors to behavior
neuraxis
an imaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain
meninges
the layers of membranes that cover the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves
ventricles
four hoolow spaces withing the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
the special plasmalike fluid circulation within the ventricles of the brain, the certral canal of the spinal cord and the subarachnoid space
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the nerves exiting the brain and spinal cord that serve sensory and motor functions for the rest of the body
forebrain
the division of the brain containing the diencephalon and the telencephalon
midbrain
the division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain
hindbrain
the most caudal division of the brain including the medulla, pons and cerebellum
nucleus/nuclei
a collection of cell bodies that share a function
medulla
the mos caudal part of the hindbrain
cerebellum
the hindbrain structure connecte to the dorsal pons thats responsible for balance, muscle tone, muscle coordination and possibly higher cognitive functions in humans
tectum
the "roof" or dorsal half of the midbrain
tegmentum
the ventral half of the midbrain
periaqueductal gray
gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain that is believed to play a role in sensation of pain
substantia nigra
dopaminergic midbrain nuclei that communicate with the basal ganglia of the forebrain
reticular formation
a collection of brainstem nuclei located near the midline from the rostral medulla up ino the midbrain that regulate arousal
superior colliculi
a pair of bumpson the dorsal surface of the midbrain that coordinate visually guided movements
thalamus
a structure in the diencephalon that serves as a sensory relay station
hypothalamus
a structure found in the dienc. that participates in the regulation of hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and aggresion. part of the limbic system
basal ganglia
a collection of nuclei withing the cerebral hemispheres that participate in the control of movement
limbic system
a collection of forebrain structures that participate in emotional and motivational behavior
lobes
one of the four major areas of the cortex: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital
corpus callosum
a wide band of axons connecting the right and left cerbral hemispheres
frontal laboomy
a surgical procedure in which a large portion of the frontal lobes is separated from the rest of the brain
action potential
the nerve impuls arising in the axon
glia
cells in the nervous system that support the activities of neurons
axon
the process or branch of a neuron usually responsible for carrying signals to other neurons
dendrite
the process of a neron that generally receives information from other neurons
soma (cell body)
the main mass of the neuron containing the nucleus and many organelles
neurotransmitter
chemical messenger that transfers information across a synapse
ion channel
protein structure embedded in the cell membrane that allows ions to pass without the use of additional energy
ion pump
protein structure embedded in the cell membrane that uses energy to move ions across the membrane
microtubule
the largest fiber in the cell cytoskeleton responsible for the transport of neurotransmittes and other products to and from the cell body
sodium-potassium pump
ion pump that uses energy to transfer three sodium ions to the extracellular fluid for every two potassium ions retrieved from the extracellular fluid
mitochondria
organelle that provides enegy to the cell by transforming pyruvic acid and oxygen into molecules of adeonosine triphosphate(ATP)
dendritic spines
bud on the dendrite that provides additional membrane aread for the formation of synapses with other neurons
axon hillock
the cone-shaped segment of the axon at the junction of the axon and cell body thats specialized for the generation of action potentials
myelin
the fatty insulating material covering some acons made up from the processes of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells
synaptic gap
the tiny fluid filled space between neurons forming a synapse
depolarization
the movement of the electrical charge within a cell in a more positive direction
hyperpolarization
the movement of the electrical charge within a cell in a more negative direction
threshold
the level of depolarization at which an action potential will be initiated
absolute refractory periods
the period of time in which an action potential wil not occur in a particular location of an axon regardless of input
relative refractory period
the period following an action potential in which larger than normal input will produce a second action potential but in which normal input will be insufficient
saltatory conduction
the movement of an action potential from node of Ranvier down the length of a myelinated axon
ribosomes
organelles involved with protein synthesis
afferent nerves
vs
efferent nerves
carry sensory info
carry motor commands
Phineas Gage
the railroad worker who blew a iron rod through his head and gave himself a frontal labotomy. no memory loss but after he was very impulsive
mesencephalon
part of the midbrain that contains the tectum and the tementum
myencephalon
part of the hindbrain which contains the medulla oblongata
hippocampus
a structure deep within the cerbral hemispheres thats involved with the formation of long term memories, part of the limbic system
motor cortex
vs
sensory cortex
cortex devoted to motor func

cortex devoted to sensory func
cranial nerves
twelve pairs of nerves that exit the brain as part of the peripheral nervous system
planes of section
the three sections or planes that anatomists use to dissect the brain. 2 vertical (front to back and ear to ear) and 1 horiz (in half)
cerebral cortex
a thin layer of outer covering of the cerebral hemisphere. the hils are gyri and the valleys are sulci
describe forebrain. what structures and functions are associated with the telencephalon and diencephalon
its the front part of the brain which includes the limbic sys, basal ganlia, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. its assoc with sensory relay ctr, regulation of basic func (hunger, thirst) and is the highest level of sensory and motor processing and cog act.
define and describe the functions associated with the myelencephalon
contains the medulla oblangata which is assoc with arousal and various other func such as cardiovascular system, breathing and muscle tone
what are the primary cortices
the primary motor, somatosensory, visual,and auditory
what functions are associated with the hypothalamus
regulation of hunger, thirst, sexual behavior and aggression
describe an action potential. include a description of the actions of ion channels and ion fluxes (ie movement in and out)
it begins at the axon hillock and cont the length of the axon. depolarization 2 threshold triggers opening of Na+ channels. entering Na ions make voltage inside neuron more pos. open of K+ near peak of AP allows K to leave the neuron. loss of K returns neurons to resting potential.
how do action potentials and resting membrane potentials differ?
in a resting potential, equilibrium occurs between K+ and Cl- so Na+ is prevented from entering the neuron. whereas in AP, the Na+ channels open
what do the glia cells do?
they support the activities of neurons
what is the role of dendritic spines?
it provides additinal membrane area for the formation of synapses with other neurons
why are those specialized proteins in the cell membrane so important to the functioning of the neuron?
because it acts like a sausage casing. it keeps certain things in and others out.
what is meant by the phrase all-or-none
action potentials are all or none. the size and shape are always the same.
why are action potentials so critical
we need them to have intercellular communication
diffusion
the force that moves molecules from areas of high concentration to ares of low concentration
electric force
opp attract and like forces repel
afferent
vs
efferet
to the brain
away from the brain
if you had to take an ice cream scoop out of your cortex or a melon ball from the medulla which would you choose?
ice cream bc the other would kill you
primary motor cortex represents: trunk, lips, toes, none of above?
lips
inside the cell is it pos or neg at rest?
its -65