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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The branch of psychology that is concerned with the acquisition, production, comprehension, and usage of language.
Underlying Representataion
The meaning component if language. It's the thought that you want to convey with an utterance. Compare with surface structure.
Surface Structure
The sounds of an utterance or the outward appearance of a language expression. Compare with the underlying representation.
Given/New Distinction
The ration of known (given) information to new information in a communication. It is a primary determinant of the difficulty of a communication.
Cognitive Economy
Any process that reduces the mental workload and makes thinking or remembering less effortful.
The best or most typical example of a category. For example, dog is the prototype for the category "animal."
Prototypical Thinking
Using the most typical member in a category as a guide to making inferences about other members of that category.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis if Linguistic Relativity
The hypothesis that language, at least in part, determines or influences thought.
Semantic Slanting
The deliberate use of words designed to create a particular attitude or foster certain beliefs.
An utterance is ambiguous when it can have more than one meaning or underlying representation.
A lack of precision in a communication. A communication is vague if it does not specify enough details for its intended use.
A change in the meaning of a word in the course of the same discussion.
Reference to the origin of a word in order to determine its meaning.
Occurs when an abstract concept is given a name and then treated as thought it were a concrete object.
The use of formal, stilted language that is often unfamiliar to people who lack special training.
The substitution of a desirable term for a less desirable or offensive one.
Occurs when a question is asked in a way that suggests what the correct response should be. The reader is "led" into assuming a particular perspective or point of view.
Risk Adverse
A general preference for options that do not involve possible loss over options that involve possible gain, even when the expected value is higher for the option that describes a loss.
The use of denial to imply that a fact is plausible.
The unconscious use if a value that is easily accessible in memory s a "starting point" for making a judgment about a quantity or cost.
The deliberate use of multiple ways to represent information- concept maps, spatial arrays, and verbal strategies- as a means of enhancing comprehension an memory.
A strategy for comprehension that requires the sue of questioning and paraphrase. The letters stand for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, and Review.
Restating ideas in your own words.
Reviewing material after it is learned so that recall becomes automatic and less effortful.
Reciprocal Peer Questioning
The process of having learners pose thoughtful questions that they take turns answering.
Generic Questions
Question "stems" that can be mortified and applied to many different topics.
Concept Maps (graphic organizers)
The use of spatial displays to organize information.
Linear Arrays
A graphic organizer in which information is presented in a list format.
A type of graphic organizer that uses a tree structure. Most useful when information is organized according to class inclusion rules.
Graphic organizers in which types of relationships among concepts are depicted.
A rectangular array that is useful when the information presented involves comparisons along several dimensions.
Hunt & Agnoli (1991)
The language we speak influences thinking to the extent that certain ideas may be easier to communicate in one language than another.
Grize (1975)
The rules for clear communication.
Bransford & Johnson (1972)
Washing clothes.
Just & Carpenter (1992)
Short term memory capacity.
McNamara, Levinstein, & Boonthum (2004)
Broke ass Merlin.