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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
SOCIAL INFERENCE includes ways we...
1-gather information
2-decide which information to use
3-integrate the information into a judgement
BIASES that affect information gathering:
Prior Expectations,
Biased Information,
Small Sample Size, Base-Rate Info
"People will often judge a sports team on the basis of watching one game while paying less attention to season record."

this is an example of...
Paying insufficient attention to base-rate information
CONJUNCTION ERROR
people will often make more extreme predictions for the joint occurrence of events than for a single event.
"In a study students were told a fellow student was gregarious and literary. When asked how likely it was he'd be an engineering major they said very unlikely, but when asked how likely he would start out in engineering and switch to journalism they gave this a much higher rating"

example of?
CONJUNCTION ERROR
"People are more risk-averse when decision alternatives are framed in terms of losses instead of gains"

this is an example of what effect on judgement?
DECISION FRAMING EFFECTS
ASSOCIATIVE MEANING
Prior expectations can influence our conclusions. We see things as correlated because they “ought” to be.
COVARIATION
a judgement of how strongly two things are related
PAIRED DISTINCTIVENESS
two items are thought to go together because they share some unusual feature
Schacter’s Theory of Emotional Lability
There are two necessary conditions for emotion.
-A state of psychological arousal
-Cognitions which label the arousal and determine what emotion is experienced.
criticisms of Schacter's Theory of Emotional Liability...
Misattribution of arousal does not occur very often outside of the laboratory.

We most likely have other mechanisms to understand our emotional experiences

Schacter’s theory works for short-term and uninvolving experiences. It has a limited range.
IRONIC PROCESSING
suppression involves an ironic monitoring process that can produce later rebound.
AFFECTIVE FORCASTING
People overpredict how long their emotional reactions to events will last.
PLANNING FALLACY
people consistently overestimate how quickly and easily they will achieve a goal and underestimate the time or effort that will e required to reach that goal
ADVANTAGES OF SCHEMAS:
-aid in information processing
-aid recall
-speed up processing
-automatic inference
-add information
-provide expectations
-affect (help u decide how u feel about something)
REPRESENTATIVENESS HEURISTIC
uses knowledge about what representative attributes of a particular schema are

ex) "steve is shy and withdrawn, likes order and structure, passion for detail" - guessing his occupatoin, more likely to say librarian b/c he fits schema
AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC
Uses the amount of information you can recall or the ease of remembering examples to make inferences.

ex)if ur a psyc major, u probably associate with a lot of psyc majors, so easier for u to come up with examples of these ppl
SIMULATION HEURISTIC
Uses the ease of imagining something to predict how likely it is to happen.

ex) crash ur dad's car, think of past experiences & his reaction to crises , come up with serveral possible outcomes
COUNTERFACTUAL REASONING
Imagining an alternative outcome to something that has already happened.
What are upward and downward conterfactuals and who is more likely to make each?
UPWARD: "if only" / make you feel worse / prepare u for the future

DOWNWARD: "at least" / make you feel better

people with high self-esteem tend to make downward counterfactuals unless they know they'll have to do the task again.
ANCHORING & ADJUSTMENT HEURISTIC
Uses an initial estimate of a value and adjusting it to reach a conclusion.

We will often make bad estimates when supplied with faulty anchors. We do not adjust enough
Ex. Spotlight effect.
CONFIRMATORY HYPOTHESIS TESTING
selectively extracting from others information that preferentially confirms a preexisting belief

ex) heard girl in ur class is a cheerleader, u think she seems outgoing and athletic although she's actually shy and not even a cheerleader
SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY
tendency for people's expectations to create reality