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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definition of Psychology?
The Science of behavior and mental processes.
Which School is associated with Titchener?
Mary Whiton Calkins
In 1890 was assigned the task of teaching experimental psychology at Wellesley College, a new womens college at the time. Studied with William James at Harvard University. Completed all the requirements for a PhD is psyc., but Harvard refused to grant her the PhD degree because at the time Harvard was not co-ed. Conducted research in many areas, including dreams, memory, and personality. 1891 established psyc. lab. at Wellesley College. Wrote "Introduction to Psychology." In 1905 was elected president of the American Psychological Association- the first woman to hold that position.
Who conditioned dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell rather than food?
Ivan Pavlov.
What does the Cognitive revolution refer to?
In the 1960s, psychology experienced a return to the stud of how mental processes influence behavior. Represented a break from traditional behaviorism.
What is the basic goal of the experimental method?
To demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
Why do researchers try to avoid being detected in naturalistic observation?
Because the basic goal of naturalistic observation is to detect the behavior patterns that exist naturally-- patterns that might not be apparent in a laboratory or if the subjects knew they were being watched.
What is the difference between a control group and a experimental group?
The control group(condition) serves as a baseline against which changes in the experimental group(condition) can be compared. Control groups go through all the experimental phases that the experimental group goes through, but are not exposed to the independent variable.
Why use a placebo control group?
To measure the effects of an actual independent variable, or treatment of interest, on the experimental group. In terms of testing, or experimenting with medication a placebo group helps researchers determine how effective the actual medication is and whether or not subjects are effected merely because they think they should be effected.
(Know the differences between correlational, single-blind, and double-blind studies.) Correlational-
A research strategy that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other. As a result it can provide a correlation coefficient (a numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables). It cannot be used to demonstrate a true cause-and-effect relationship.
(Know the differences between correlational, single-blind, and double-blind studies.)
Experimental technique in which neither the participants nor the researcher interacting with the participants is aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned.
(Know the differences between correlational, single-blind, and double-blind studies.)
In contrast to a double-blind study, this is a study in which the researchers, but not the subjects, are aware of critical information.
Define Biological psychology.
(Biological psychology is also called biopsychology or psychobiology.)
Specialized branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems.
What do nuroscientists study?
In general, the nervous system. In more detail: The neural basis of behavior. The various parts of the nervous system like the visual or auditory system. The function of groups of neurons. The study of what individual neurons do in relation to a "event" (also neurotransmitter studies). What happens at the synapse. What happens at ion channels on a neuronal membrane. And the genetic basis of neuronal function.
How many neurons are in the brain? (not cells)(That is... a human brain...?)
An estimated 100 billion neurons.
What are the 3 basic types of neurons?
Sensory, motor, and interneurons.
To increase the amount of information a neuron receives, what needs to be increased?
What is a myelin sheath?
A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed.
What is the electrical charge of a neuron at the resting state?
-70 millivolts
Describe the synaptic gap.
The tiny, fluid filled space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron. About five-millionths of an inch wide.
What is the make-up of the central nervous system (CNS)?
Includes the brain and the spinal cord. (Spinal cord connects the brain and the Peripheral nervous system.)
What is the make-up of the peripheral nervous system?
(The peripheral nervous system carries messages to and from the central nervous system(CNS).)
Consists of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles and transmits sensory information to the CNS. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary body functions and consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system arouses the body to expend energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system calms the body to conserve and maintain energy.
Know which part of the brain creates new neurons. (Neurogenesis)
The hippocampus.
When drunk, which brain structure is effected? In other words, which brain structure is responsible for muscle coordination and maintaining posture and equilibrium?
The cerebellum.
What is the primary communitcation link between the two brain hemispheres?
The corpus callosum.