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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The brain is part of the:

a. peripheral nervous system
b. parasympathetic nervous system
c. sympathetic nervous system
d. central nervous system
d. central nervous system
The major function of the ______ nervous system is to carry information to and from the ________ nervous system.

a. central; peripheral
b. peripheral; central
c. sympathetic; parasympathetic
d. somatic; autonomic
b. peripheral; central
Nerve connections to the muscles and skin are provided by the ________ division of the peripheral nervous system.

a. somatic
b. parasympathetic
c. autonomic
d. sympathetic
a. somatic
The sympathetic branch is responsible for ________ arousal.

a. decreasing
b. increasing
c. autonomic
d. maintaining
b. increasing
You barely escaped an attack from a large, frightening dog. When you safely arrive at your home, you are able to relax because of the ________ branch of the nervous system.

a. peripheral
b. parasympathetic
c. somatic
d. sympathetic
b. parasympathetic
________ occurs due to an overreaction of the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system.

a. feedback loops
b. dialated pupils
c. voodoo death
d. a decrease in heart rate
c. voodoo death
The brain is composed of layers that:

a. were developed over the course of evolution
b. are made up of cells called neurotransmitters
c. are different colors ranging from gray below and pink on top
d. work separately of one another
a. were developed over the course of evolution
The ________ layers of the brain are responsible for more primitive activities, while the ________ layers are in control of more complex activities.

a. top, bottom
b. front, back
c. bottom, top
d. back, frint
c. bottom, top
The concept of ________ refers to the fact that different parts of the brain control different behaviors.

a. localization of function
b. topographical organization
c. lateralization of function
d. neural plasticity
a. localization of function
Early physiologists who used phrenology believed which of the following statements:

a. lumps on the skull could be used to identify abilities and personality traits
b. different parts of the brain were responsible for dfferent functions
c. the size of the brain determines intelligence
d. A and B
d. A and B
Which of the following structures are a part of the brain stem?

a. medulla, pons, ventricles
b. medulla, pons, reticular activating system
c. reticular activating system, cerebellum, pons
d. reticular activating system, medulla, cerebellum
b. medulla, pons, reticular activating system
This structure of the brain stem produces neurological activity during sleep and that activity causes dreams.

a. corpus callosum
b. medulla
c. pons
d. reticular activating system
c. pons
High levels of morphine may cause death due to reduced neurological activity in what area of the brain?

a. thalamus
b. medulla
c. pons
d. hippocampus
b. medulla
What is the function of the reticular activating system?

a. it carries stimulation from the brain stem to higher areas of the brain
b. it stimulates the brain stem to decrease arousal
c. it controls simple responses such as coughing or swallowing
d. it is responsible for coordination of motor movements
a. it carries stimulation from the brain stem to higher areas of the brain
Homeostasis is controlled by what structure in the limbic system?

a. amygedala
b. hypothalamus
c. hippocampus
d. thalamus
b. hypothalamus
The role of the ________ in the control of appetite was demonstrated in early research on rats. When lesions were made in one area of htis structure, the rats developed a voracious appetite and experienced significant weight gain. However, when the lesions were made in a different area of the same structure, they stopped eating. What is this structure called?

a. amygdala
b. hypothalamus
c. hippocampus
d. thalamus
b. hypothalamus
Some cases of ________ are due to low levels of neurological activity in the hypothalamus.

a. depression
b. anxiety
c. schizophrenia
d. addiction
a. depression
Deterioration of the hippocampus is seen in which illness:

a. Parkinson's Disease
b. Epilepsy
c. Alzheimer's Disease
d. Anorexia
c. Alzheimer's Disease
High levels of electrical activity in the ________ can lead to violent outbursts in humans.

a. frontal lobes
b. amygdala
c. hippocampus
d. hypothalamus
b. amygdala
The ________ is involved in the processing of memories of emotional events.

a. thalamus
b. hypothalamus
c. basal ganglia
d. amygdala
d. amygdala
The limbic system consists of what three structures?

a. amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus
b. hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus
c. amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus
d. hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala
c. amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus
This structure is responsible for interpreting incoming sensory stimuli:

a. thalamus
b. cortex
c. frontal lobes
d. basal ganglia
a. thalamus
These areas of the brain receive stimulation from various parts of the body and are responsible for feelings of touch and pain.

a. motor areas
b. visual sensory areas
c. somatosensory areas
d. auditory sensory areas
c. somatosensory areas
Parkinsons Disease is a result of ________ neurological activity in the ________.

a. decreased, basal ganglia
b. increased, hippocampus
c. excessive, basal ganglia
d. decreaszed, hippocampus
c. excessive, basal ganglia
The ________ divides the brian into the front and back half.

a. central fissure
b. corpus callosum
c. cerebral hemispheres
d. auditory cortex
a. central fissure
What area of the brain contains the most neurons?

a. cortex
b. spinal cord
c. corpus callosum
d. hippocampus
a. cortex
Each hemisphere is made up of what four libes?

a. frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
b. frontal, auditory, occipital, temporal
c. front, auditory, visual, temporal
d. auditory, visual, temporal, parietal
a. frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
The backs of the hemispheres house the ________.

a. parietal lobes
b. temporal lobes
c. frontal lobes
d. occipital lobes
d. occipital lobes
The occipital lobes contain the ________ of the brain.

a. language areas
b. auditory sensory areas
c. motor area
d. visual sensory areas
d. visual sensory areas
Your teeth are represented in:

a. the somatosensory area of the brain
b. the motor area of the brain
c. both the somatosensory and motor areas of the brain
d. neither the somatosensory nor motor areas of the brain
a. the somatosensory area of the brain
Which of the following statements is true regarding the proportion of the brain devoted to association areas?

a. lower animals have a larger proportion of the brain devoted to assocation areas than humans
b. humans have a larger proportion of the brain devoted to assocation areas than animals
c. lower animals and humans have equal proportions of hte brain devoted to association areas
d. lower animals do not have assocation areas
b. humans have a larger proportion of the brian devoted to assocation areas than animals
The brain structure that provides a communication link between the hemispheres is called the:

a. corpus callosum
b. basal ganglia
c. cerebellum
d. hypothalamus
a. corpus callosum
The right side of the body is controlled by the:

a. left hemisphere
b. front portion
c. right hemisphere
d. back portion
a. left hemisphere
In most people, the left hemisphere is responsible for ________ abilities.

a. language
b. visual
c. motor
d. spatial
a. language
An individual is thought to have deterioration in his or her right hemisphere. If this is true, what might you notice about the individual?

a. he/she has difficulty interpreting complex sentences
b. he/she has difficulty analyzing and solving logical problems
c. he/she has experienced a decrease in emotional expression
d. he/she has experienced an increase in emotional expressoin
c. he/she has experienced a decrease in emotional expression
An individual suffering from quadriplegia most likely experienced:

a. a break in the upper portion of the spinal cord
b. a break in the lower portion of the spinal cord
c. extensive left hemisphere damage
d. extensive right hemisphere damage
a. a break in the upper portion of the spinal cord
The portion of the neuron that receives stimulation from other neurons is the:

a. dendrite
b. nucleus
c. axon
d. myelin sheath
a. dendrite
The portion of the neuron that carries the nerve impulse out to other neurons is the:

a. dendrite
b. nucleus
c. axon
d. myelin sheath
c. axon
The nerve impulse jumps from one node of the Ranvier to the next one in neurons that are:

a. myelinated
b. nonmyelinated
c. relatively short
d. relatively long
a. myelinated
Deterioration of the myelin sheath causes:

a. paraplegia
b. multiple sclerosis
c. Parkinson's Disease
d. Alzheimer's disease
b. multiple sclerosis
An exampe of a drug that would affect a nerve impulse by clogging the sodium/potassium channels is:

a. Paxil
b. Nardil
c. Novocaine
d. Amphetamine
c. Novocaine
When nerve impulses are transmitted, an electrical process occurs in the ________, and a chemical process occurs in the ________.

a. axon, myelin sheath
b. synaptic gap, dendrite
c. dendrite, synaptic gap
d. axon, synaptic gap
d. axon, synaptic gap
Taking a drug that influences neurotransmitter activity in more than one area of the brain would be likely to cause:

a. neural migration
b. side effects
c. branching of dendrites
d. overly aggressive behavior
b. side effects
A drug that works by blocking the reuptake of a neurotransmitter and leaves more of the neurotransmitter in the synapse is:

a. Nardil
b. Novocaine
c. Zoloft
d. Lithium
c. Zoloft
Underactivity of inhibitory neurons can be associated with:

a. depression
b. high levels of anxiety
c. bipolar disorder
d. schizophrenia
b. high levels of anxiety
Steve is in an accident and suffers injuries that cause nerves in his arm and in his brain to die. Which nerves, if any, will regenerate?

a. all of the neurons will regenerate
b. the neurons in his brain will regenerate, but not those in his arm
c. the neurons in his arm will regenerate, but not those in his brain
d. none of the neurons will regenerate
c. the neurons in his arm will regenrate, but not those in his brain
The example of workers building a number of different roads and then choosing to only repair and maintain those that were used frequently while letting the unused roads deteriorate is analogous to what neural process?

a. neural pruning
b. developing new neurons
c. branching of dendrites
d. neural plasticity
a. neural pruning
Brancing of dendrites is assocated with:

a. neural plasticity
b. neurotransmitter availability
c. learning
d. predetermined growth patterns
c. learning
The adrenal gland releases:

a. epinephrine
b. insulin
c. cholesterol
d. testosterone
a. epinephrine
Adrenalin is the basis for ________ that increase arousal and are useful in treating disorders such as asthmas, whereas testosterone is the basis for ________ that are useful for building new tissues.

a. thyroxin, growth hormone
b. norepinephrine, epinephrine
c. corticosteroids, anabolic steroids
d. insulin, thyroxin
c. cortiscosteroids, anabolic steroids
Which of the following is NOT true of anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids ________:

a. are produced by the adrenal glands
b. must be used in combinatoin with good nutrition and exercise to be effective
c. contain high levels of testosterone
d. can cause increases in aggression
a. are produced by the adrenal glands
Studies of differences in brain strucutres have produced evidence that:

a. the area responsible for language is 20-30% larger in men than women
b. women have a larger corpus callosum than men
c. men have a larger amygdala than women
d. there are no differences between women and men in the structures of their brains
b. women have a larger corpus callosum than men
Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text as a factor that influences synaptic transmission?

a. presence of myelin
b. number of receptor sites on postsynaptic neurons
c. presence of inhibitory neurons
d. sensitivity of postsynaptic neurons
a. presence of myelin
Conducting a true experiment allows researches to:

a. develop a hypothesis
b. compute a correlation coefficient
c. determine causation
d. identify confounding variables
c. determine causation
A relationship between two variables can be expressed as a number ranging from -1.00 to + 1.00. THis number is called a:

a. strenght of relationship number
b. correlation coefficient
c. confounding coefficient
d. abstractly correlated
b. correlation coefficient
Blood alcohol level and number of beers consumed are generally:

a. not correlated
b. negatively correlated
c. positively correlated
d. pabstractly correlated
c. positively correlated
The number of hours studied for an exam is probably ________ with the number of items a person gets correct on that exam.

a. not correlated
b. negatively correlated
c. positively correlated
d. confounded
c. positively correlated
A negative correlation would most likely be seen between:

a. height and weight in children
b. cigarettes smoked and life expectancy
c. grade in school and age
d. none of the above would show negative correlations
b. cigarettes smoked and life expectancy
Which of the following correlations indicates the weakest relationship between two variables?

a. -.87
b. +.21
c. -.34
d. +.56
b. +.21
Which of the following correlations indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?

a. -.56
b. +.13
c. -.22
d. +.45
a. -.56
Controlled experiments allow the determination of:

a. causation
b. overgeneralization
c. random assignment
d. a correlation coefficient
a. causation
An advantage of longitudinal studies is that they

a. are useful for studying the effects of time
b. can be conducted over very short periods of time
c. have low participant drop-out rate
d. are the only studies in which we can assign causation
a. are useful for studying the effects of time
Ideally, researchers should try to ________ when possible in order to minimize confounding variables.

a. confound their research
b. randomly assign participants to conditions
c. sample only very similar participants
d. assign all participants to all conditions
b. randomly assign participants to conditions
The most efficient and practical way to study the relationship between age and physical illnesses would be to:

a. do an experiment
b. do a longitudinal study
c. collect case studies
d. do a cross-sectional study
d. do a cross-sectional study
A ________ would be the best method for studying the relationship between age and political awareness.

a. true experiment
b. longitudinal study
c. quasi experiment
d. correlational study
b. longitudinal study
A good way to measure the effect of the environment on depression would be to:

a. compare the levels of depression across various environments
b. do a longitudinal study in which depression is measured over a long period of time
c. compare the levels of depression in identical twins
d. study the biological parents of depressed people
a. compare the levels of depression across various environments
TO determine which drug is more effective in reducing depression, an experiment was done in which 50 depressed college students were given treatment X and 50 depressed professors were given treatment Y. The levels of depression were measured by an independent investigator who did not know who was in which condition. This experiment was:

a. valid
b. confounded
c. generalizable
d. significant
b. confounded
In your text, a case sutdy about the effect of sensory deprivation is described. The case study is discussed because it demonstrates that:

a. it is important to have participants sign a disclaimer before participating in an experiment
b. the expectations of participants can affect research outcome
c. sensory deprivation is extremely unhealthy
d. depriving people of sensory stimulation is unethical
b. the expectations of participants can affect research outcome
Results of research on facilitated communication revealed that:

a. autistic children do not like typing on keyboards
b. facilitated communication is a valid way for autistic children to express themselves
c. the autistic child expectation influenced the outcome of the facilitated communication
d. the facilitator expectation influenced the outcome of the facilitated communicaiton
d. the facilitator expectation influenced the outcome of the facilitated communication
A double-blind procedure means that ________ and ________ do not know who has been assigned to which condition of an experiment.

a. the participants in the experimental condition; the participants in the control conditions
b. the participants in all conditions; the experimenters
c. the participants in the experimental condition; their families
d. the participants in the control condition; their families
b. the participants in all conditions; the experimenters
One potential problem with the use of animals in psychological research is that:

a. animal studies do not allow researchers as much control over their research as studies with humans
b. animal studies often lack generalizability to human situations
c. animal studies are much more expensive than studies with humans
d. animal studies are rarely valid
b. animal studies often lack generalizbility to human situations
An experimenter wants to study how extremely stressful states affect memory. However, he knows that it would be unethical and impractical to reproduce a stuation that would be extremely stressful for the participants in his experiment. Therefore he decides to create a milder and less stressful situation. This is an example of:

a. case study research
b. observational research
c. an invalid experiment
d. an analogue experiment
d. an analogue experiment
A researcher is interested in studying effects of smoking on lung cancer. It is probably unethical and impractical to ask potential participants to begin smoking, and therefore she cannot due a true experiment. Instead she might conduct ________.

a. a case study
b. a confounded experiment
c. a quasi experiment
d. a generalizaiton
c. a quasi experiment
Results of a study are said to be generalizable if:

a. they can be applied to other people and situations
b. they justify the conclusion that is drawn
c. it is impossible to draw a conclusion about what caused the difference in a dependent variable
d. the same results can be found when the experiment is repeated
a. they can be applied to other people or situations
An investigator is interested in determining the effects of alcohol on academic performance in college students. She decides to follow a sample of young adults to their freshman year until they graduate. This is an example of what kind of study?

a. a valid experiment
b. a confounded experiment
c. a longitudinal study
d. a cross-sectional study
c. a longitudinal study
Which of the following is a measure of central tendency:

a. standard deviation
b. variance
c. range
d. mode
d. mode
The median is calculated by:

a. finding the most frequently occuring score in a distribution
b. finding the middle score in a distribution
c. finding the average of a distribution of scores
d. taking the highest score minus the lowest score
b. finding the middle score in a distribution
A distribution has scores of 2, 89, 10, 12, 12, 18, and 32. In that distribution, what two measures of central tendency are the same?

a. mean and mode
b. median and mode
c. median and mean
d. mean and variance
b. median and mode
A distribution has a variance of 16. What is the standard deviation of the distribution?

a. 4
b. 8
c. 2
d. 256
a. 4
Which of the following statements is true about statistically significant findings?

a. they are expected to occur fewer than 5 times in 100 by chance
b. they prove a hypothesis
c. they are always generalizable
d. none of the above
a. they are expected to occur fewer than 5 times in 100 by chance
Twenty well-controlled experiments are conducted to determine whether NutraSweet causes cancer in rats. The results of each experiment show that NutraSweet does not promote tumorous cells at a faster rate than no treatment or a placebo. From these results, it can be concluded that:

a. NutraSweet does not cause cancer
b. the experiments are confounded
c. there is no evidence that NutraSweet promotes cancer growth
d. an analogue experiment should be conducted
c. there is no evidence that NutraSweet promotes cancer growth
Who believed that differences in behavior are cuased by differences in bodily humors or biles?

a. Aristotle
b. Hippocrates
c. Plato
d. Sigmund Freud
b. Hippocrates
Who believed that variations in experience are the primary factor affecting differences in behavior?

a. Aristotle
b. Hippocrates
c. Plato
d. Sigmund Freud
a. Aristotle
The first psychology lab was founded by:

a. Anna Freud
b. Carl Rogers
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Wilhelm Wundt
d. Wilhelm Wundt
Psychologists who emphasize the functional approach are interested in:

a. how human behavior is affected by genetics
b. how human behavior can be understood as a whole
c. how experiences are affected by the unconscious
d. how experiences help humans adapt to situations
d. how experiences help humans adapt to situations
When psychologists take the structural approach to psychology, they are interested in:

a. determining what components go together to result in an experience
b. building structures that will be helpful to people diagnosed with mental illness
c. distinguishing mental structures from physical structures
d. encouraging people to have more structure in their lives
a. determining what components go together to result in an experience
Psychologists who believe in the Gestalt approach to psychology take the position that:

a. various experiences help humans adapt to situations
b. subconscious or unconscious thoughts are the primary influence on human behavior
c. experience can best be understood by considering it as a unified whole
d. it is more important to understand the components of an experience than the experience as a whole
c. experience can best be understood by considering it as a unified whole
Which of the following situations best illustrates a belief in the structuralist approach?

a. your mom believes that a painting is best interpreted when you stand back and look at the whole thing from a distance
b. your roommate believes a painting is best interpreted if you know something about the childhood of the painter
c. you believe a painting is best interpreted by looking closely at different colors and textures within the painting
d. Professor Holmes believes a painting is best interpreted while playing classical music
c. you believe a painting is best interpreted by looking closely at different colors and textures within the painting
If a person accepts the psychodynamic approach to psychology, he or she believes that many of our behaviors:

a. have been learned through experience
b. are the result of errors in our own thinking
c. are the result of unconscious needs and urges
d. are conscious acts which we carefully execute
c. are the result of unconscious needs and urges
Which of the following is most likely to have been said by Sigmund Freud?

a. our behavior is due to unconscious urges, many of which are associated with sex
b. our behavior is primarily the result of things you have learned
c. our behavior is a direct representation of how depressed you are feeling
d. our behavior today is directly related to what you ate last night
a. our behavior is due to unconscious urges, many of which are associated with sex
John Watson would most likely have said which of the following?

a. our behavior is due to unconscious urges, many of which are associated with sex
b. our behavior is primarily the result of things you have learned
c. our behavior is a direct representation of how depressed you are feeling
d. our behavior today is directly related to what you ate last night
b. our behavior is primarily the result of things you have learned
If you were a humanistic psychologist you would most likely believe which of the following about behaviors?

a. behaviors are the manifestation of unconscious thoughts and feelings
b. behaviors are the result of conditioning
c. behaviors are best understood by considering a person's physical state
d. behaviors are the result of attempts to achieve goodness, personal wholeness, love, self-esteem and self-fulfillment
d. behaviors are the result of attempts to achieve goodness, personal wholeness, love, self-esteem and self-fulfillment
In the cognitive perspective, behavior is believed to be primarily influenced by:

a. an individual's learned responses
b. what an individual thinks
c. an attempt to strive for basic goodness
d. unconscious processes
b. what an individual thinks
Little Albert is an important figure in psychology because he illustrated that:

a. little people have feelings just like big people
b. sometimes you can only understand someone's behavior after assessing the whole individual
c. sex can play an important role in understanding human behavior
d. conditioning can play an important role in understanding human behavior
d. conditioning can play an important role in understanding human behavior
Bobby is depressed and decides to visit a psychologist. If the psychologist takes a physiological perspective, which of the following would he or she most likely believe is causing Bobby's depression?

a. he feels like he does not fit in well at school
b. he has a chemical imbalance of neurotransmitters in his brain
c. he has unresolved childhood issues
d. he incorrectly thinks that he or she is a worthless person and no one likes him
b. he has a chemical imbalance of neurotransmitters in his brain
Wilhelm Wundt brought ________ and ________ together to work in his lab.

a. philosophers; psychiatrists
b. physiologists; psychiatrists
c. philosophers; psychologists
d. philosophers; sociologists
c. philosophers; physiologists
With regard to the different explanations for behavior, which of the following is true?

a. multiple explanations are correct for some behaviors
b. behaviorism is alawys the most correct explanation
c. psychologists have not yet discovered acceptable explanations for behavior
d. cognitive psychologists are usually the most correct
a. multiple explanations are correct for some behaviors
Which of the following distinguishes psychiatrists from psychologists?

a. a psychiatrist has an M.D. degree whereas a psychologist usually has a Ph.D.
b. a psychiatrist has a Ph.D. degree whereas a psychologist usually has an M.D.
c. a psychiatrist did not attend medical school whereas a psychologist probably did not attend medical school
d. a psychiatrist cannot usually be distinguished from a psychologist
a. a psychiatrist has an M.D. degree whereas a psychologist usually has a Ph.D.