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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
appraisal theory
It’s not something that happens to you that makes you feel good/bad, it’s how you interpret it
5 components of emotion
subjective feeling, expression/behavior, physiological changes, action, cognition
5 problems with self-report
access, memory, willingness, demand characteristics, intrusive
trade-off with eliciting emotion
more control means less intense emotion
Signs that stand for words, etc. (gestures, insults)
emblems
5 categories of nonverbal expression
emblems, illustrators, regulators, affect displays, adaptors
Motions that accompany speech
illustrators
Nods, etc. to adjust flow of conversation (nonverbal equivalent of “mmm-hmm”)
regulators
Smiling, frowning, etc.
affect displays
Signs of inner anxiety, distractors (nervous habits, etc.)
adaptors
Darwin's 3 major contributions
Observation, methodological advances, applying theory of evolution
Darwin's book
The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals (1872)
Evolution applied to emotions (3 points)
Evolved, innate, functional/adaptive
Associated habit (expression of disgust) connected to a behavior (spitting out food because it tastes bad)
Principle of serviceable associated habits
Experience of emotion happens in response to certain elicitors, regardless of culture
universality of emotions
Goodenough (1932)
observations of 10-year-old blind and deaf girl
Galati, Scherer, & Ricci-Bitti, 1997
No difference between blind and sighted
6 basic emotions (Eckman)
joy, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, fear
Ekman & Friesen (’71)
Judgment studies with students of US and other Western cultures had 70% overall agreement
Ekman Fore Research- Study 1
Show pictures of Westerners making facial expressions to foreigners. What emotions do foreigners think they are expressing? Kids and adults agree, kids generally better
Ekman Fore Research- Study 2
Pick emotion that matches story
Duchenne (1862)
Electrical stimulation of facial muscles. Found old man suffering from facial anesthesia
FACS acronym
facial action coding system
FACS based on...
movements of independent muscles and head positions, which are expressed by “action units,” by assigning them a number
FACS developed by...
Eckman
Duchenne smile
felt
non-Duchenne smile
false
Eckman ('85)
telling lies
Eckman's model of culture and emotion
elicitors of emotion --> biologically programmed expression --> display rules --> culturally appropriate emotions
Eckman, Friesen, & Ellsworth, ‘72
neutral and stressful movie: in private, no difference in expressions, withanother person, US did not disguise, Japanese masked with smile
Goodenough (1932)
observations of 10-year-old blind and deaf girl
Galati, Scherer, & Ricci-Bitti, 1997
No difference between blind and sighted
6 basic emotions (Eckman)
joy, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, fear
Ekman & Friesen (’71)
Judgment studies with students of US and other Western cultures had 70% overall agreement
Ekman Fore Research- Study 1
Show pictures of Westerners making facial expressions to foreigners. What emotions do foreigners think they are expressing? Kids and adults agree, kids generally better
Ekman Fore Research- Study 2
Pick emotion that matches story
Duchenne (1862)
Electrical stimulation of facial muscles. Found old man suffering from facial anesthesia
FACS acronym
facial action coding system
FACS based on...
movements of independent muscles and head positions, which are expressed by “action units,” by assigning them a number
FACS developed by...
Eckman
Duchenne smile
felt
non-Duchenne smile
false
Eckman ('85)
telling lies
Eckman's model of culture and emotion
elicitors of emotion --> biologically programmed expression --> display rules --> culturally appropriate emotions
Eckman, Friesen, & Ellsworth, ‘72
neutral and stressful movie: in private, no difference in expressions, withanother person, US did not disguise, Japanese masked with smile
Matsumoto (199)
Asked Japanese and American students when it would be appropriate to express particular emotions
Kring & Gordon, 1998
No differences in reported level of emotion between men and women, Women more expressive during pleasant and unpleasant films
Davis, 1995
1st and 3rd grade girls better than boys at masking disappointment, Boys better when motivated to win prize, but still not as good as girls
Friedeman & Miller-Herringer (1991)
Videotaped facial expressions while subjects played competitive video game with 2 other “subjects” (confederates), didn't look triumphant when in group
Mufson & Nowiki
Women better than men at IDing emotions (BART), high self-monitorers better than low for men only
Parts of PNS
Autonomic, Somatic
Parts of autonomic NS
Sympathetic, parasympathetic
SNS, PNS in
ANS
Expends energy, bodily resources
sympathetic NS
Regulates/conserves bodily resources
parasympathetic NS
which part of the ANS is activated as a unit?
sympathetic
which part of the ANS works with homeostasis functions?
parasympathetic
lie detection: ancient China to 19th century
rice in mouth: dry = guilty
lie detection in Arabia
hot iron test: burned tongue = guilty
4 ways to fool polygraph
drugs, internal/external stimuli, biofeedback training, distraction
common sense view of emotion
perception --> emotion --> behavioral/physiological changes
James
perception --> behavioral/physiological changes --> emotion
subjective experience is ____ of bodily changes
result
components of emotion according to James
subjective, behavioral, physiological
Cannon
perception --> thalamic arousal --> emotional feeling and bodily changes
Cannon's major contributions
emphasized role of brain, deemphasized role of body
Bermond (’91)
Subjects with spinal cord injury- physiological experience lower, but subjective experience is not
Bermond counters...
James
Chwalisz et al. (’88)
In control group, used people who were wheelchair bound for reasons other than spinal cord, no group differences in intensity of emotion
intensity of _____ correlated with ____
anger and other emotions, lesion locations
STUDY: Generalized ANS activation
Hess and Selya
Walter Hess
Defense response
Increased SNS activity, hair stands on end
Defense response
Hans Selya
General Adaptation System
defined how body reacts to stress
General Adaptation System
General Adaptation System
stress --> hypothalamus --> cortisol and sympathetic NS
3 phases of General Adaptation System
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
where does cortisol come in in General Adaptation System?
resistance
Schachter & Singer (1962)- RESULTS
Non-specific arousal elicits emotions, but cognitions arising from event have “steering function” to differentiate emotions
Schachter’s two-factor theory
Event --> ANS arousal --> cognition --> emotion
Schachter & Singer (1962) claim to participants
Said was study of “effects of vitamin supplement on vision” (actually adrenaline)
STUDY: Groups that didn’t know about effects of drug showed more of emotions similar to condition that they were in
Schachter & Singer (1962)
STUDY: Placebo group was happier than epinephrine-informed group in euphoria condition
Schachter & Singer (1962)
STUDY: Physiological experience lower in patients with SC injury, but not subjective experience
Bermond ('91)
STUDY: Intensities of fear and love higher after injury
Chwalisz et al. (’88)
Excitation transfer
ANS arousal can be transferred to any emotion depending on situation
43 subjects hooked up to polygraph, measured HR, BR, SC, muscle tension, real-life induction of anger and fear with shocks and arrogant experimenter
Ax (1953)
Ax (1953) results: SC
Up for anger and fear
Ax (1953) results: Muscle tension
Up for anger and fear
Ax (1953) results: HR
Down for anger, up for fear
Ax (1953) results: Skin temperature
Up for anger, down for fear
STUDY: Directed facial action task- Told them to move certain muscles in face, ended up making 6 basic emotional faces
Levenson
HR high, skin temp high for _____
...anger
HR high, skin temp low for ____ and ____
fear, sadness
HR low for ____, ____, and _____
happiness, disgust, suprise
STUDY: Induced fear and anger in real-life and imagined condition
Stemmlet, 2001
Stemmlet, 2001 results
Emotion-specific profiles of body changes in emotions emerged
Gottman
2 types of batterers
Type 1 batterer
Increased HR when angry
Type 2 batterer
Decreased HR when angry
2 functions of ANS in emotion
feedback to brain about emotion, prepare body
Darwin-expressing emotions increases their intensity, suppressing them softens them.
Facial Feedback Theory
Also referred to as proprioceptive feedback (more general, non-face specific term)
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Evidence of facial feedback hypothesis (3)
emotional "contagion," studies of actors, posing facial expressions
2 competing theories of facial feedback
modulation, initiation
Amplification or de-amplification of feelings elicited by appropriate stimuli
modulation hypothesis of facial feedback
Elicitation of emotion by facial movement (due to hard-wired connections between components)
initiation hypothesis of facial feedback
Lanzetta (1976)
modulation hypothesis
Lanzetta study setup
Amplify or suppress facial expression while receiving mild electric shocks
Results: Lanzetta
Suppression group rated the pain lower than amplification group
Laird: facial expression determines...
...kind of emotion
Laird: ANS changes determine...
...intensity of emotion
Cover Study
Action of facial muscles
STUDY: Facial expressions produce differences in recall of sad vs. happy memories
Laird
STUDY: Body posture is also related to feelings
Laird
STUDY: Cues from a number of different emotional behaviors (such as face and posture) combine to produce stronger feelings than the parts alone.
Laird
Who criticized facial feedback theory?
Tourango and Ellsworth
STUDY: Rated cartoon funnier when holding pencil in teeth
Strack, Martin, and Strepper
STUDY: Directed facial action task: pose 6 basic emotions and hold for 10 sec. then measure self report and ANS data
Ekman, Levenson, and Friesen
McIntosh 1996
Mechanisms of facial feedback