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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are determinants of puberty?
heredity
hormones
birth weight
The part of the brain involved in reasoning, decision making and self control is the?
amygdala
In boys, higher levels of ______ are associated with violence and acting-out behavior.
androgens
Unprotected sexual intercourse is considered a health-______ behavior.
compromising
Which of the following structures is involved in puberty?
gonads
What is true about adolescence?
1)Puberty ends before adolescence.
2)Puberty is the most important marker for the beginning of adolescence.
3)Puberty is a period of rapid physical maturation.
Puberty takes place between ages ______ for most individuals.
9 and 16
Which of the following early experiences has been linked to early pubertal onset?
child maltreatment
The term “secular trend” refers to?
patterns of pubertal onset over historical times.
______ is a period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily change.
Puberty
According to Vygotsky, cognitive growth depends on?
interaction with others in cooperative activities.
Increases in both capacity and speed of processing are referred to as ?
cognitive resources.
What term refers to the ability to complete activities with little effort or thought?
Automaticity
The “mental workbench” refers to what information-processing concept?
Working memory
A memory strategy in which an adolescent groups items into categories is called?
organization
Thinking that goes from observation of specific things to general principles is known as?
inductive.
Reasoning from general principles to specific situations is known as ?
deductive
Sternberg believes that most schools fail to teach critical-thinking skills by?
focusing too much on formal reasoning.
According to research, what kind of students are usually self-regulatory learners?
High achievers
Problem-solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences is the traditional definition of
intelligence
The substance and content of an individual’s self-conceptions are his or her
self-understanding.
During adolescence, one’s self-understanding becomes increasingly
abstract
The “barometric self” is an example of the ____________ self.
fluctuating
Adolescents are least likely to show their false self with who?
with close friends.
The global evaluative dimension of the self defines
self-esteem.
Which type of peer support appears to contribute the most to an adolescent’s self-esteem?
Classmate and Close friend
For most adolescents, low self-esteem results in ______________ emotional disturbance.
temporary
Which of Erikson’s developmental stages is experienced during adolescence?
Identity versus role confusion
Experimenting with different types of dress, music, foods, and friends during adolescence is an effort to do what?
find their place in the world.
The identity statuses identified by Marcia depend on what two factors?
Crisis and commitment
What term refers to the sociocultural dimension of being male or female?
Gender
What term refers to the social expectations of how we should act, think, and feel as females and males?
Gender role
Which theory emphasizes gender role acquisition as a product of modeling and reinforcement?
Social cognitive
One study concerning the gender roles of siblings showed that over a two-year period
older siblings became less like their younger siblings.
The first role models for gender behavior are?
parents
Research shows that, in comparison to female students, male students are given more what?
praise, criticism, instruction, attention.
The cognitive developmental theory of gender development is based on whose theory?
Piaget's
According to gender schema theory,
gender-typing emerges as individuals develop culture-appropriate gender schemes.
By what age do children attain gender constancy?
6 to 7 years
What is modern sexism?
Lack of support for policies designed to help women
What cognitive characteristic discussed in the text often leads adolescents to take sexual risks?
Adolescent egocentrism
What might limit research on matters of sexuality?
A. Some people are reluctant to answer questions about such a personal aspect of life.
B.Some people will refuse to give any intimate information to strangers.
C.Some people may give socially acceptable answers that may not be truthful.
D.People with liberal attitudes toward sex are more apt to answer than those with conservative attitudes.
The progression of heterosexual adolescent and young adult sexual behavior is typically what?
kissing, petting, sexual intercourse and oral sex
What proportion of adolescents have NOT had sexual intercourse by the time they are 19 years of age?
One-fifth
Low self-regulation, the ability to regulate one’s emotions and behavior, has been linked to what?
sexual risk taking.
When did the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association stop classifying homosexuality as a disorder?
1970s
Research has shown that one reason adolescent girls do not encourage their partners to use condoms is because the risk of disease or pregnancy is not as threatening as the risk of what?
1.being embarrassed.
2.the boy leaving her.
3.not enjoying sex because the condom might be uncomfortable. 100%
What are some risks about infants born to adolescent mothers?
1.They are likely to be of low birth weight.
2.They are likely to have behavioral problems.
3.They score lower on intelligence tests than babies born to older mothers.
4. They score lower on achievement tests later in life than babies born to older mothers.
Bruce is having sex but is not using contraception. According to research, it is likely that Bruce is?
from a low-SES background.
In the study of moral development, what three domains are examined?
Thoughts, behaviors, and feelings
What are the two dimensions of moral development?
Interpersonal and intrapersonal
As children and adolescents develop, their moral thoughts become?
more internalized.
What statement best describes heteronomous morality?
Moral thinking is often tied to punishment.
In Kohlberg’s theory there are _____ levels, with each level having ______ stages.
three; two
Most adolescents reason about moral dilemmas in a?
conventional way.
Bandura argues that people don’t usually engage in immoral conduct until they have?
justified to themselves the morality of the act.
The moral perspective that views people in terms of their connectedness to and concern for other people is known as the
care perspective.
According to Gilligan, girls interpret moral dilemmas in terms of
human relationships.
Moral competence is defined as?
the ability to produce moral behaviors.
When parents not only influence their adolescents but are also influenced by them, this is called
reciprocal socialization.
Which of the following statements is most consistent with the continuity view of development?
The secure parent-infant bond shapes the basic components of social relationships.
What are the two main developmental construction views?
Continuity and discontinuity
Longitudinal research by Collins that looked at the relation between individuals’ friendships in middle childhood and their dating at age 16 showed that?
the quality of individuals’ relationships during middle childhood was associated with intimate, secure dating relationships at age 16.
In comparison to younger fathers, older fathers are more likely to?
communicate well.
Which parental factor is most related to juvenile delinquency?
Inadequate parental monitoring
According to Baumrind, which types of parents are punishment-oriented and engage in little discussion regarding limits?
Authoritarian
Some parents who purposefully use an indulgent style of parenting assume that this style will result in a ______________________________ adolescent.
confident
Parent-adolescent conflict occurs when?
Most conflict involves everyday events of family life.
If you asked adolescents with whom they experience the most disagreements, they would most likely say who?
Mother