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45 Cards in this Set

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The first operant conditioner
Puzzle box
First made by Thorndike, demonstrates stop-action
Behavior demonstrated in a puzzle box. After animal has been put in box many times, they become faster at getting out because their behavior becomes more and more stereotyped and less and less useless.
Also led to law of effect
Law of effect
Thought up by Thorndike, said that animal will perform actions leading to satisfying state of affairs, and avoid those that cause discomfort
Satisfying state of affairs
A state of affairs that the animal does nothing to avoid and may even work towards
Diff between class and operant conditioning.
* operant is emitted, not evoked
* behavior is voluntary
* behavior in operant is reinforced
The seven deadly reinforcement schedules
CRF, FR, FI, VR, VI, Differential Reinforce for Highest / Lowest rates
The reinforcement schedule that yields highest response
The reinforcement schedule that yields highest extinction
ratio strain
what happens when you have an FR schedule with too high a ratio.
Scalloping, when does it happen?
FI reinforcement schedule
w/ regard to stop-action, said that a behavior is not a specific musc movement, but rather a class of behaviors
The guy that noted that when doing a maze, it's not about specific muscular movement. A rat can equally well swim a maze as he can run it.
The three kinds of mazes
Straight alley
T-shaped maze
Hampton Court
Discrimination maze task, and the 3 kinds
Animal must find food by paying attention to certain cues...visual, spacial, or place
Discrete trial
The time you enter the maze to the time you leave
The two sorts of reinforcers
Primary and 2ndary
Why does 2ndary reinforcer work?
Because of a direct CS/US relationship with a primary reinforcer
Premack principle
A lower-probability behavior is more likely when it's been tied to a high-probability behavior.
The two things that determine effectiveness of operant conditioning
Proves inverse of delay and learning
spatial discrimination paradigm.
Hull's ideas about why delay isn't as important for operant?
1. the delay box may be a 2ndary reinforcer
The man with the black and white box, that proved visual discrimination
response chains
multiple steps in a response
What each link in a response chain does
serves as a discriminative stimulus for the link ahead of it, and a conditioned reinforcement for the link behind it.
proved that high motivation isn't always the best w/ the drowned rat experiment
There are two types of stimulus control
Superstitious behavior
Behavior that occurs when reinforcement is random
Learned helplessness
Behavior that occurs when a /negative/ reinforcement is random
Partial reinforcement effect
The paradox that occured when people realized that CRF had highest extinction even though it was reinforced the most.
The two explanations for the partial reinforcement effect
Discrimination hypothesis--
the animal can't discriminate that the situation's changed w/ stuff like VI, but it can do it easily with CRF
Generalized decrement hypothesis--the similarity of the situation is screwing things up.
Rule governed versus contingency-shaped
Humans versus animals
What can effect rule-governened behavior?
1. prior experience w/ conditioning
2. previous history
3. instructions
positive reinforcement
Give /reward/ when behavior /does/ happen so that it'll happen again
negative reinforcement
take away /punish/ when behavior /does/ happen so it'll happen agian
positive punishment
Give /punish/ when behavior /does/ happen so it won't happen again
negative punishment aka omission
take away /reward/ when behavior /does/ happen so it won't happen again.
Escape and avoidance are classified as which kind of reinforcement
negative reinforcement
Avoidance paradox
How can a behavior that you don't do ever be reinforced?
This kind of box led to avoidance paradox
Shuttle box.
2 explanations for avoidance paradox
2-factor, assumes fear
CS=light off, US=shock, CR=fear
1-factor, assumes no fear
4 Problems with positive punishment
1. May lead to hate of punisher
2. leads to too many emotions
3. Needs to be constant..CRF schedule probably
4. Can lead to suppression of all behaviors
How effective a punishment is depends on 5 things..
1. The manner it's introduced
2. Immediacy
3. the schedule of punishment
4. viable alternatives
5. motivation to respond