Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In the 1958 Harlow experiment with infant monkeys, even when the wire mother was the only one providing food, the infant monkeys became attached to the terry cloth mother, cuddling it and running to it when frightened, and using it as a secure base for explorations.

What Freudian concept did this disprove?
This disproved that infant attachment to mothers is mainly a function of feeding.
Describe the Securely Attached infant according to research by Ainsworth.
The securely attached infant protested and cried when the mother left the room.

When the mother returned, he greeted her with pleasure and was easy to console.

They tend to be enthusiastic and persistent in solving tasks. In preschool, they tend to be curious, socially competent, self-reliant and more sympathetic to distress of peers.

They are also better at communicating anger, hurt, and jealousy in a meaningful way because they have confidence that they will get a sensitive response.

They are also more assertive and more likely to become leaders.
Describe the Anxious Ambivalent child in Ainsworth Research.
The anxious ambivalent child was clingy and afraid to explore the room. He became anxious upon separation, crying profusely. (10%)

He sought contact with the mother when she returned but arched away angrily and resisted efforts to be soothed.

The ambivalent child tries to influence the mother because she does come through on occasion.
Describe the Anxious Avoidant Child.
The anxious avoidant child explored the new environment without using the mother as a base. (20%)

He did not check for the mother's presence as those labeled securely attached did. When the mother left, didn't seem affected. On her return, he snubbed or avoided her.

He is angry and distant. His pleas for attention have been rejected.

May seek attachment with teachers or other adults.
Ainsworth's study observed how children behaved when reunited with their mother's in the strange situation.

Her study would have only shown that children respond differently when reuninted with their mother.

What made her study unique?
Ainsworth observed the mother-child pairs for 72 hours over the prior year. She could therefore make specific associations between babies attachment styles and the mother's style of parenting.
What did Ainsworth find out about the mother's behavior or securely attached children?
Mothers were more responsive to feeding signals of crying infants and were more likely to return smiles.
What did Ainsworth find out about mother's of children that were labeled anxiously attached?
Mothers of anxiously attached were inconsistent, unresponsive, and rejecting
According to Ainsworth, what is important about a secure base?
A responsive mother provides a secure base. Infant needs to know that the primary care giver is steady and dependable. Gives a child confidence to explore the world.

Without it, he is insecure and exploration is stunted.
What does it mean to be securely attached?
Being securely attached means the child has been given the confidence that someone will be there for them and they are minimally capable of forming satisfying relationships.
What was discovered about the children that Ainsworth labeled as insecurely attached?
They lacked self reliance and had little enthusiasm for problem solving.

They were often problem kids with poor peer relations.

Insecurely attached are amenable to change when young.
What are some criticisms of attachment theory and the strange situation?
Some say that the strange situation is not a reliable measure of attachment. They claim that:

Ainsworth had a small sample that was restricted in variety.

Six minutes of reunion behavior could not tell you about .5 million minutes of behavior in the home.

Should include other aspects of parenting, such as teaching, playing, having fun, and looking at father's role.

Teenagers who experienced deprivation when young can rebound in adolescence.
What does Bowlby believe about attachment?
A child needs a reliable, ongoing attachment to a primary care giver and he suffers if the attachment is interrupted or lost.

Separation from mother is disastrous.

Abandon Freudian notion of drives.

Attachment behaviors include protesting departure, greeting return, cling when frightened.
What are some characteristics as children labeled as avoidant?
show more separation distress than secure babies. They had mothers who were interfering, rejecting, and neglectful.
Why did Jane Goodall at first observe chimps from a distant mountain peak?
She could observe chimps behavior from a distance and they gradually got used to her presence
How stable are chimp social groups? Which is the most stable chimp relationship?
Mother and young infant are the only stable group in the community.
Are adult male chimps involved with young chimps?
How important is learning in chimps maternal behavior?
Daughter imitates mother to learn maternal behavior
How important is learning in tool use for chimps?
Tool use is important for retrieving termites, getting water using leaf as a sponge. Behavior is passed from generation to generation
What did Goodall learn about chimp relationships over 20 years of study that she might not have seen if her study ended earlier?
Community divided into 2. There was a gang attack and war. Four apes attacked one victim. Behavior between Passion and daughter (cannibalism).
What are Kagan's criticisms of attachment theory?
Children that are labeled as securely attached are actually dependent. Get upset when parent leaves because they do not know how to deal with uncertainty. Their behavior when they grow up is simply because they adopted the values of their parents.

Kids called avoidant are just controlling their fear responses. Not controlling it because their parents treated them badly but because their parents valued independence.

Kagan believes genes are responsible because children classified as irritable shortly after birth are likely to be classified as anxious a year later.

Kids classified as avoidant appear indifferent to mother's coming and going not because they gave up hope but because they are less fearful
What is the purpose of the Strange Situation and what categories is an infant placed in?
To find out whether an infant is confident is his mother's availability and responsiveness and is good at using her as a secure base.

Infants are classified as Secure, Insecure-avoidant or Insecure-resistant.
What was the purpose of the 44 Thieves Study done by Bowlby in 1936-1939 in London?
Young children were in court for theft and no one was doing research to find out why so many young children were in trouble.

Wanted to see what factors the young thieves had in common.
What procedures did Bowlby use in the 44 Thieves Study?
IQ Tests
Psychiatric History
Interview child and mother
Case conference
What was a common characteristic of the 44 Thieves?
They had not lived securely at home all their lives.
What are some characteristics of Affectionless Characters in the 44 Thieves Study?
Lack of affection for others
No ties to home and no relationships
Cant express desires or feelings
As children, they experienced a complete emotional loss of mother
What was a common thread in children's histories in 44 Thieves?
Separation and loss were common in the children's histories.

Provided influential evidence about the importance of early experience
What was John Bowlby's goal with respect to attachment theory?
He wanted to preserve Freud's good ideas with relationship to the importance of early experience and make it more scientific