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155 Cards in this Set

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Whenever you smell coconut oil, you tend to think about your recent vacation in the Bahamas (where you and your friends used lots of coconut suntan oil). This also makes you think about all of the fun and crazy things you did on your trip. That is, the smell of coconut oil __________ memories of your trip.
-frames
-primes
-contaminates
-simulates
Primes
As described in the textbook, current theory and research suggests that humans may have evolved to have especially large and powerful brains largely in order to
-dominate other species.
-effectively relate to other people.
-obtain food.
-fend off predators.
-effectively relate to other people.
When buying a new car, people tend to look at statistical information and case history information. Research shows that they tend to be more influenced by
-case history information—regardless of whether or not it is the first time they have purchased a car.
-statistical information—regardless of whether or not it is the first time they have purchased a car.
-case history information if it is the first time they have purchased a car, but statistical information if they have purchased cars in the past.
-statistical information if it is the first time they have purchased a car, but case history information if they have purchased cars in the past.
-case history information—regardless of whether or not it is the first time they have purchased a car.
Suppose that a coin is flipped 20 times. The first 19 flips are all heads. Is the last flip more likely to be heads, more likely to be tails, or equally likely to be heads or tails? When people engage in the gambler's fallacy, they
-say that the last flip is more likely to be heads.
-say that the last flip is more likely to be tails.
-say that the last flip is more likely to be heads OR say that the last flip is more likely to be tails.
-say that the last flip is equally likely to be heads or tails.
-say that the last flip is more likely to be heads OR say that the last flip is more likely to be tails.
Schemas and scripts are both examples of
-types of conscious or controlled thinking.
-knowledge structures.
-heuristics.
-counterfactuals.
-knowledge structures.
When people make external, unstable attributions for others' successes or failures, these attributions tend to concern questions of
-ability or talent.
-effort or hard work.
-ease or difficulty of the task.
-luck or chance.
-luck or chance.
Madison’s is taking a freshman seminar at her university. In that class, the teacher works with students to help them identify the criteria they use to make decisions, and points out how some of the criteria might not produce the desired outcomes. The teacher is probably trying to
-develop a script.
-prime the students for success.
-promote heuristic processing.
-debias the students’ thinking.
-debias the students’ thinking.
Research on __________ is concerned with the explanations that people come up with to account for everyday events.
-heuristics
-schemas
-attribution
-self-regulation
-attribution
T/F
Jack read about the swine flu in the papers for the past two weeks. When he comes down with fever, chills, and a bad cough, he is absolutely certain that he as the swine flu because of all the media coverage it got. Jack is illustrating the simulation heuristic.
F
In Bargh, Chen, and Burrows (1996), participants who were in the “rude” priming condition were more likely to
-wait patiently for the experimenter to speak to them with instructions.
-interrupt the experimenter to get instructions.
-view Donald as reckless, conceited, and aloof.
-view Donald as careful, modest, and warm.
-interrupt the experimenter to get instructions.
As discussed in the textbook, research participants who read a story about a character named "Donald"—a character who engages in skydiving, demolition derby driving, and other similar activities—tend to think that Donald is especially reckless when
-they have been primed with words like "dangerous" and "risky."
-they have been primed with words like "fun" and "adventurous."
-they have been asked to avoid the fundamental attribution error.
-they have been asked to avoid the ultimate attribution error.
-they have been primed with words like "dangerous" and "risky."
Dr. Canne wants to encourage Kirk to lose weight. He tells Kirk, “If you don’t start working out soon, you are going to die young and leave your children without a father!” Dr. Canne is using a(n)
-prime.
-script.
-gain-framed appeal.
-loss-framed appeal.
-loss-framed appeal.
Because most people are cognitive misers, they tend to __________ as little as possible.
-make use of schemas
-rely on heuristics
-engage in conscious processing
-engage in automatic, nonconscious processing
-engage in conscious processing
The tendency to overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all after just one exposure to a group member performing a behavior illustrates the
-illusory correlation.
-one-shot illusory correlation.
-hot hand.
-magical thinking.
-one-shot illusory correlation.
Which of the following is the best example of ironic processing interfering with attempted thought suppression?
-You are trying not to think about the fact that you made a fool of yourself at a party last weekend, but the thought pops into your head every few hours.
-You are trying not to think about the fact that you made a fool of yourself at a party last weekend, but the more you try not to think about it, the more the thought keeps popping into your head.
-The more you think about the fact that you made a fool of yourself at a party last weekend, the more mortifying and embarrassing the event seems.
-The more you think about the fact that you made a fool of yourself at a party last weekend, the less embarrassing it seems.
-You are trying not to think about the fact that you made a fool of yourself at a party last weekend, but the more you try not to think about it, the more the thought keeps popping into your head.
You and a friend are visiting a new city and would like to splurge and go out for a fine meal. You look at the restaurant listings in the newspaper and find one that is very expensive. Your friend says: "Let's go for it. With prices like that, we're bound to have a delicious meal!" In making this statement, your friend was most likely guided by
-the vacation effect.
-the representativeness heuristic.
-the contrast effect.
-the primacy effect.
-the representativeness heuristic.
Even though Vlad never actually exercises, you have always assumed that he is an athlete because he hangs around at the gym (like other athletes), drinks bottled water nonstop, and wears sweat suits everywhere. Your (false) assumption that Vlad is an athlete is MOST clearly an example of:
-the availability heuristic.
-the failure to take base-rate information into account.
-the representativeness heuristic.
-the anchoring and adjustment heuristic.
-the representativeness heuristic.
Suppose that Mr. Yipol gives 100 students a reading exam. He then selects the 5 students with the highest scores for a special reading program. At the end of the reading program, he administers the same reading exam again. To Mr. Yipol's astonishment, though, the students actually perform worse this time. While it might well be the case that the reading program actually negatively impacted the students' reading ability, Mr. Yipol would be wise to consider that the decrease could be due to __________.
-magical thinking
-illusory correlation
-statistical regression
-illusion of control
-statistical regression
Letha has just met her first Mormon missionary. In conversation, she finds out that he is a collector of rare books. If Letha commits the one-shot illusory correlation, she will
-think that the missionary believes he is better than her because of his hobby.
-believe she can persuade the missionary that her religion is the better world view.
-believe many Mormons collect rare books.
-attribute his collection behavior to his scholarly character.
-believe many Mormons collect rare books.
If you have a schema about graduate students, then
-you probably tend to think about graduate students much more than the average person.
- you have a general sense of what they are like, what they do, and how they are different from other people.
-you probably have a tendency to separate the world into "graduate students" and "non-graduate students."
-you are very likely to become a graduate student in the future.
- you have a general sense of what they are like, what they do, and how they are different from other people.
One of your professors has apparently just lost his job. Suppose that the campus newspaper publishes an article about it, invoking external, stable attributions. Which of the following might be the headline of the article?
-"Unlucky Series of Misunderstandings Leads to Professor Being Fired"
-"Another Great Professor Let Go as a Result of Budget Cuts"
-"Inappropriate Conduct Causes Professor's Demise"
-"When Professors Get Lazy, Consequences Can Be Extreme"
-"Another Great Professor Let Go as a Result of Budget Cuts"
The term "cognitive miser" was coined to refer to
-people's general reluctance to do much extra thinking.
-people's general reluctance to share their ideas with other people.
-people's tendency to give themselves the benefit of the doubt in ambiguous situations.
-people's tendency to blame negative experiences on other people (or on other external circumstances).
-people's general reluctance to do much extra thinking.
In a famous early study in social psychology, fans of two rival football teams were asked to watch footage of an actual game that was very close. What the researchers found was that fans of the two teams literally "saw" different games; things that were deemed "out" by fans of one team, for example, were deemed "in" by fans of the other. This was early evidence of the phenomenon known as
-counterfactual thinking.
-the illusory correlation.
-the confirmation bias.
-the simulation heuristic.
-the confirmation bias.
Which of the following is the BEST example of a schema?
-You tend to assume that just because someone is Asian, that person must be good at mathematics.
-You believe that it is bad luck to step on the cracks when walking on the sidewalk.
-You know how to behave when you go out to dinner with your friend and her parents.
-You have a general sense of what cats are like, how they behave, and how they are different from other animals.
-You have a general sense of what cats are like, how they behave, and how they are different from other animals.
Suppose that Dorothy and Tim are out to lunch together, and both are on restricted-calorie diets. Which of the following would be the BEST example of counterregulation?
-Dorothy notices that Tim has ordered a cheeseburger (and broken his diet), therefore she feels that she has "permission" to break her diet too. She then goes ahead and orders a cheeseburger for herself.
-After ordering a cheeseburger for lunch, Dorothy thinks to herself, "well, my diet is already blown for the day; I might as well order a dessert too." She then goes ahead and orders a deluxe chocolate milkshake.
-Dorothy orders a cheeseburger and milkshake for lunch, and thus blows her diet for the day. When Tim starts to order a similar lunch, though, Dorothy chastises him and tells him that he should try to eat a less fattening lunch.
-After ordering a cheeseburger and milkshake for lunch, and thus blowing her diet for the day, Dorothy feels remorseful and decides to go to the gym and skip dinner that night.
-After ordering a cheeseburger for lunch, Dorothy thinks to herself, "well, my diet is already blown for the day; I might as well order a dessert too." She then goes ahead and orders a deluxe chocolate milkshake.
A knowledge structure that contains information about a concept and its relationship to other concepts (e.g., a structure that contains information about judges and how judges relate to lawyers, criminals, the general public, and so forth) is known as
-a script.
-a schema.
-a heuristic.
-a mental vacuum.
-a schema.
T/F
People who receive extremely low scores on IQ tests almost always perform better the second time around. This pattern can be attributed to statistical regression.
T
Research shows that people tend to engage in fewer cognitive errors and biases in everyday thinking
-as a result of having had graduate training involving statistical reasoning, but not when they are simply encouraged to carefully consider different alternatives.
-when they are encouraged to carefully consider different alternatives, but not as a result of having had graduate training involving statistical reasoning.
-both as a result of graduate training involving statistical reasoning, and when they are encouraged to carefully consider different alternatives.
-neither as a result of having had graduate training involving statistical reasoning, nor when they are encouraged to carefully consider different alternatives.
-both as a result of graduate training involving statistical reasoning, and when they are encouraged to carefully consider different alternatives.
Wing Tung is reading his textbook for history class. At the end of each paragraph, he stops and asks himself what the paragraph was about. Once he feels like he knows that, he goes on. Wing Tung is using ____ to improve his thinking.
-meta-cognition
-contamination
-conjunction
-attribution
-meta-cognition
When researchers survey men and women about the number of sex partners they have had, they tend to find that men report far more partners than women—which would seem to be logically impossible. However, researchers have also found that
-the difference is largely due to men misremembering (and overestimating) the number of sexual partners that they have had.
-men and women seem to use different techniques to count sex partners, and seem to define "sex" slightly differently.
-the difference completely goes away when people are surveyed anonymously.
-the difference completely goes away when homosexual sex and prostitution are accounted for.
-men and women seem to use different techniques to count sex partners, and seem to define "sex" slightly differently.
Suppose that you have a certain idea about what a tropical island should be like: It should be a tourist destination, have palm trees, enjoy a warm climate, and contain plenty of bars that serve cocktails with paper umbrellas. Your general understanding of what a tropical island is all about is MOST clearly an example of
-a script.
-a schema.
-a heuristic.
-magical thinking.
-a schema.
Harold Kelley's attribution theory is sometimes called
-the attribution ring.
-the attribution pyramid.
-the attribution tree.
-the attribution cube.
-the attribution cube.
The state of having too much information to make a decision or remain informed about a topic is known as
-statistical regression (regression to the mean).
-the gambler's fallacy.
-the conjunction fallacy.
-information overload.
-information overload.
According to the false consensus effect, most people
-overestimate the degree to which others share their attitudes and opinions.
-overestimate the degree to which other people all agree with one another in general in terms of attitudes and opinions.
-underestimate the degree to which others share their attitudes and opinions.
-underestimate the degree to which other people all agree with one another in general in terms of attitudes and opinions.
-overestimate the degree to which others share their attitudes and opinions.
According to the attribution theorist Harold Kelley, people make attributions for others' behaviors -according to the covariation principle.
-based on how they believe they themselves would behave.
-largely based on what they have been recently primed with.
-using counterfactual thinking.
-according to the covariation principle.
The attribution theorist Harold Kelley proposed that people make use of three types of information when they make attributions for others' behaviors—
-uniqueness, variance, and distribution.
-base rate, representativeness, and availability.
-temporal sequence, context, and convenience.
-consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness.
-consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness.
Whenever Yael thinks about bad things happening to her ex-boyfriend, she gets "creeped out;" she feels like she will actually make bad things happen to him just by thinking about it. This is an example of
-magical thinking
-illusory correlation
-statistical regression
-illusion of control
-magical thinking
When William James spoke of "wakening the associations," he was referring to
-knowledge structures.
-priming.
-framing.
-simulation.
-priming.
According to a study in Europe, women who take their husband’s name tend to earn about __ as much as women who keep their birth name
-25%
-50%
-75%
-105%
-75%
Research on the anchoring and adjustment heuristic indicates that
-people usually do not "adjust" enough away from their anchors.
-people usually "adjust" too much away from their anchors.
-people will not engage in this heuristic if they know that the anchors are arbitrary.
-people will not engage in this heuristic if they know that it can lead to faulty decisions.
-people usually do not "adjust" enough away from their anchors.
T/F The self-serving bias refers to people's tendency to think that others are more similar to them than they really are when it comes to their faults and weaknesses.
F
An attribution is
-a knowledge structure.
-a causal explanation.
-a type of heuristic.
-an expectation.
-a causal explanation.
You have just spent the afternoon volunteering in the post-anesthesia recovery unit at the local hospital, helping patients with a variety of ailments. Even though you are not actually ill at all, as you walk home from the hospital you do so with a slight limp, and begin lightly coughing. What phenomenon is MOST likely to be responsible for this?
-attribution
-priming
-framing
-scripting
-priming
The false consensus effect, the illusory correlation, and the first instinct fallacy are all examples of topics in __________ research.
-attribution theory
-social cognition
-motivation
-prejudice
-social cognition
Counterregulation is BEST described as
-the "what the heck" effect.
-the "I am monitoring myself better than you are" effect.
-the "monkey says monkey do" effect.
-the "I knew it all along" effect.
-the "what the heck" effect.
Given the research on cognitive errors and biases, it can be concluded that
-people are not nearly as smart as they are usually given credit for.
-people can be extremely unpredictable in terms of when and why they will engage in rational versus irrational decision-making styles.
-people rely on irrational thinking the vast majority of the time, but are still capable of engaging in careful, conscious thought when they need to make important decisions.
-These errors are extremely serious, and tend to have cumulatively biasing effects across time.
-people rely on irrational thinking the vast majority of the time, but are still capable of engaging in careful, conscious thought when they need to make important decisions.
Yogurt that is "low fat" can be described as "95% fat free" or as "5% fatty." That is, it can be __________ in different ways.
-framed
-primed
-scripted
-simulated
-framed
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, many people were stranded without access to food, shelter, or other resources. This is because many of them were extremely poor, did not own cars or phones, and did not have friends or family nearby; it was virtually impossible for them to evacuate the hurricane area when they heard the hurricane warnings. However, some people who saw media reports on the hurricane victims did not understand this. These people thought: "Why didn't everyone simply take the family minivan and go stay with family somewhere?" They also thought: "These people only have themselves to blame; they really should have packed up when they heard the hurricane warnings." It appears that, in making these kinds of interpretations, such people were actually making
-downward social comparisons.
-upward social comparisons.
-the ultimate attribution error.
-the fundamental attribution error.
-the ultimate attribution error.
The fundamental attribution error is sometimes also known as
-the correspondence bias.
-the ultimate attribution error.
-the self-serving error.
-the covariation principle.
-the correspondence bias.
Mr. X thinks that George W. Bush became president of the U.S. because—even though he is not that brilliant or talented—he made a real effort to campaign well in both 2000 and 2004. But Mr. Y thinks that George W. only became president because he was "in the right place at the right time," and had good luck. Social psychologists would say that Mr. X is making __________ attributions for Bush's success, while Mr. Y is making __________ attributions.
-internal and unstable, external and unstable
-external and unstable, external and stable
-internal and stable, external and unstable
-external and unstable, external and stable
-internal and unstable, external and unstable
The so-called "Sports Illustrated jinx"—the tendency for athletes to experience a dip in performance directly after appearing on the cover of Sports Illustrated—can be BEST explained by
-statistical regression.
-magical thinking.
-illusory correlation.
-the base rate fallacy.
-statistical regression.
Which of the following is an explanation for the false consensus effect, but not an explanation for the false uniqueness effect?
-People use themselves as an "anchor" when judging others.
-People want to feel good about themselves.
-People want to feel that they are consistent across time.
-People tend to ignore base rate information when making probability estimates.
-People use themselves as an "anchor" when judging others.
In informal surveys, people always overestimate the number of lesbians who have AIDS. Lesbians actually have extremely low rates of AIDS, but people tend to associate lesbians with gay men (who have relatively high rates). Thus, people tend to think that they see a lesbian-AIDS relationship when in fact there is no such relationship. This is a good example of:
-the false consensus effect.
-the illusory correlation.
-the belief in a just world hypothesis.
-the contrast effect.
-the illusory correlation.
People who have severe brain damage sometimes approach objects in the world as if they are seeing them for the first time. That is, instead of seeing a "chair," for example, these people see "a wooden object with four legs." Similarly, instead of seeing two dogs, such people might see "a small tan animal with fur and a large brown object with its tongue hanging out." It appears that people with this kind of brain damage
do not have schemas.
have inaccurate schemas.
do not use heuristics.
have inaccurate heuristics.
do not have schemas.
Research on the brain sizes of humans and other animals shows that
humans have larger brains than any other animal.
humans have larger brains proportionate to their body size than any other animal.
humans have the largest area of cortex proportionate to their body size than any other animal.
humans have larger brains than any other animal, humans have larger brains proportionate to their body size than any other animal, and humans have the largest area of cortex proportionate to their body size than any other animal.
humans have the largest area of cortex proportionate to their body size than any other animal.
Attribution theory is MOST concerned with
how people make decisions among a set of choices.
how people form scripts and schemas.
how people explain everyday events.
how people make predictions about future events.
how people explain everyday events.
T/F
The tendency to think that all African Americans are likely to be great athletes because LeBron James (2008-09 NBA League MVP) is such a great athlete illustrates the illusory correlation.
T
The paradoxical effects of thought suppression have been linked to psychological disorders such as
schizophrenia and schizoaffective personality disorder.
phobias, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
bipolar disorder and hypomania.
histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.
phobias, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
According to Harold Kelley's attribution theory, when consistency and consensus are both perceived to be low,
then people tend to make internal attributions.
then people tend to make external attributions.
then people tend to make internal attributions if distinctiveness is perceived to be high, but external attributions if distinctiveness is perceived to be low.
then it is unclear what type of attributions people will make.
then it is unclear what type of attributions people will make.
Yesi and her boyfriend have just broken up, and Yesi has been deeply upset about the breakup for several days. She is trying to take her mind off of her ex-boyfriend, though, and to focus her attention on other things instead. However, if this attempted thought suppression results in ironic processing, then Yesi will end up
wanting to get back together with her boyfriend.
being more angry with her boyfriend than she was before.
thinking about her boyfriend even more than she was before.
dating someone she doesn't really like that much "on the rebound."
thinking about her boyfriend even more than she was before.
When people encounter information that is at odds with an existing schema
they simply rely on that information (and ignore their schema).
they incorporate that information into their existing schema.
they tend to ignore that information, or else the information sparks conscious thought about the topic at hand.
they simply create a new schema altogether.
they tend to ignore that information, or else the information sparks conscious thought about the topic at hand.
The Stroop test is a psychological test that highlights
the distinction between automatic thinking and controlled thinking.
the tendency for ironic processes to occur in the wake of attempted thought suppressions.
the fact that thinking is guided by three different types of goals.
the tendency for people to make the fundamental attribution error.
the distinction between automatic thinking and controlled thinking.
Which of the following is the BEST example of a gain-framed appeal?
Working out daily will help you maintain good health.
Failure to work out daily will risk health consequences.
People who don’t work out enough tend to struggle with their weight.
If you don’t work out, you might lose muscle mass.
Working out daily will help you maintain good health.
Social psychologists use the term __________ to refer to activating a concept in mind.
priming
framing
schematizing
attribution
priming
The covariation principle was proposed by Harold Kelley.
True
False
T
The false consensus effect refers to the tendency for people to
overestimate the number of people who agree with them.
underestimate the number of people who agree with them.
rely too heavily on the primacy effect.
not rely heavily enough on the primacy effect.
overestimate the number of people who agree with them.
Fritz Heider analyzed what he called "common sense psychology"—the ways in which people explain everyday events. He suggested that most people explain everyday events in terms of either __________ or __________.
stable factors, unstable factors
internal factors, external factors
global factors, specific factors
consistency factors, distinctiveness factors
internal factors, external factors
Recall the "Castro study" conducted by Jones and Harris. In this study, participants were asked to read an essay that was supposedly written by another student. The essay was always about Castro, but it was either pro-Castro or anti-Castro. Also, participants were told either (a) that the essay-writer got to choose which side to take (pro- or anti-), or (b) that the essay-writer was ASSIGNED to one side or the other. The researchers found that
participants made the fundamental attribution error—but only for the pro-Castro essays.
participants made the fundamental attribution error—but only for the anti-Castro essays.

participants made the fundamental attribution error for both types of essays.
participants only made the fundamental attribution error when they themselves had strong views about Castro.
participants made the fundamental attribution error for both types of essays.
The older students get, the more variance there is in their reading test scores. This pattern can be attributed to statistical regression.
True
False
F
Raquel buys stock in two different companies. She makes $2000 from one of these investments, but loses $3000 on the other one. If you ask Raquel about her stocks, she makes self-serving attributions; she says: "I was very clever to invest in that first company, but I just had bad luck losing so much money with the other one." In other words,
she makes internal attributions in both cases.
she makes external attributions in both cases.
she makes an internal attribution for the $2000 earning, but an external attribution for the $3000 loss.
she makes an internal attribution for the $3000 loss, but an external attribution for the $2000 earning.
she makes an internal attribution for the $2000 earning, but an external attribution for the $3000 loss.
Quite understandably, students are often more upset about missing an exam question when they had previously circled the correct answer—and then changed it to an incorrect answer—as opposed to when they had chosen an incorrect answer all along. This is MOST directly related to
the representativeness heuristic.
the anchoring and adjustment heuristic.
the simulation heuristic.
the confirmation bias.
the simulation heuristic.
Raquel buys stock in two different companies. She makes $2000 from one of these investments, but loses $3000 on the other one. If Raquel is like most people, then she will MOST likely
make internal attributions in both cases.
make external attributions in both cases.
make an internal attribution for the $2000 earning, but an external attribution for the $3000 loss.
make an internal attribution for the $3000 loss, but an external attribution for the $2000 earning.
make an internal attribution for the $2000 earning, but an external attribution for the $3000 loss.
The _________ is also known as the better-than-average effect and the Lake Wobegon effect.
gain-loss effect
ultimate attribution error
false uniqueness effect
self-fulfilling prophecy
false uniqueness effect
How does the fundamental attribution error (FAE) differ from the actor-observer effect (AOE)?
They make opposite predictions.
They make similar predictions, but the FAE focuses on attributions that we make about others, while the AOE concerns attributions that we make about ourselves.
They make similar predictions, but the FAE focuses on attributions that we make about ourselves, while the AOE concerns attributions that we make about others.
They make similar predictions, but the FAE focuses on attributions that we make about others, while the AOE concerns attributions that we make about others AND attributions that we make about ourselves.
They make similar predictions, but the FAE focuses on attributions that we make about others, while the AOE concerns attributions that we make about others AND attributions that we make about ourselves.
A prime is
a stimulus that activates further processing of the same or related stimuli.
a way in which an argument is positioned.
a causal explanation for your own behavior.
a causal explanation for someone else's behavior.
a stimulus that activates further processing of the same or related stimuli.
Within the field of social cognition, the term "priming" refers to
modeling a behavior for someone else.
activating a concept in the mind.
imitating a behavior.
engaging in a behavior without conscious awareness.
activating a concept in the mind.
Montana and Sarah are playing cards. Montana has a great hand—four aces—while Sarah's hand is just average—a 2 of hearts, a 3 of spades, a 5 of spades, and a 7 of clubs. Even though the statistical probability of both hands is the same, many people (incorrectly) assume that Montana's exact hand is rarer than Sarah's exact hand. This common misconception stems most directly from
the base rate fallacy.
the representativeness heuristic.
the availability heuristic.
the false consensus effect.
the representativeness heuristic.
People who think they have a “hot hand” after winning five poker hands in a row tend to think that
it is more likely they will win the next hand than it actually is.
it is more likely they will lose the next hand than it actually is.
they are equally likely to win versus lose the next hand.
their winning is due to having better traits than others.
it is more likely they will win the next hand than it actually is.
Jules and Jim are reading a book review about a book that both of them have read. Jules hated the book, and seems to feel that the reviewer also hated it. Meanwhile, Jim thought the book was witty and provocative, and he seems to think that the reviewer shares HIS views. It seems as though both Jules and Jim are "seeing" different things when reading the book review. That is, both of them seem to be engaging in
the confirmation bias.
the self-fulfilling prophecy.
the false consensus effect.
the illusory correlation.
the confirmation bias.
Sometimes people blow on dice when playing a board game to make sure they get the numbers they need to advance in the game. When people believe they can affect the dice by blowing on them they are experiencing the
gambler’s fallacy.
illusory correlation.
conjunction fallacy.
illusion of control.
illusion of control.
People are faster to classify the target word "flower" when it is preceded by the word "plant" than when it is preceded by the word "elephant." This effect is due to
attribution.
priming.
simulation.
counterregulation.
priming.
Hilder is on the so-called "South Beach diet", which restricts her from eating foods that are high in carbohydrates (e.g., white bread, potato chips, and pretzels). The more Hilder thinks about the fact that she cannot eat such foods, however, the more desperately she begins to crave them. Social psychologists refer to this kind of pattern as an
oxymoronic attribution.
ironic process.
paradoxical activation.
odd activation.
ironic process.
People generally prefer to conserve effort by relying on automatic modes of thought (rather than
conscious modes of thought) whenever they can. That is, people tend to
rely on base rates.
avoid using scripts.
make upward comparisons rather than downward comparisons.
be cognitive misers.
be cognitive misers.
Suppose that you are at a departmental meeting at work, and one of your co-workers starts screaming at you and calling you a "stupid freak." This is very shocking to you. Your mind races to determine whether to make an internal attribution ("Is this guy just crazy?") or an external attribution ("Did I say something to provoke him?"). One thing you ask yourself is whether you have ever seen him explode in anger at anyone else, or in other kinds of situations. That is, one of the things you ask about is
consistency information.
consensus information.
distinctiveness information.
priming information.
distinctiveness information.
According to research on the actor-observer effect, people have a tendency to make relatively more __________ for their own behaviors but relatively more __________ for others' behaviors.
internal attributions, external attributions
external attributions, internal attributions
stable attributions, unstable attributions
unstable attributions, stable attributions
external attributions, internal attributions
A gain-framed appeal focuses on framing something in terms.
negative
positive
neutral
truthful
positive
A loss-framed appeal focuses on the
upside of a behavior’s consequences.
downside of a behavior’s consequences.
most accurate portrayal of a behavior’s consequences.
priming of thoughts.
downside of a behavior’s consequences.
The opposite of a cognitive miser would be someone who
does not care what other people think.
tends to share his or her ideas freely with others.
carefully and rationally thinks about each and every decision.
rarely compares himself or herself with peers.
carefully and rationally thinks about each and every decision.
When most people think of the concept "sleeping," they also tend to think about concepts like "dreaming," "being tired," and "yawning." That is, when they think about "sleeping," related concepts are __________.
framed
scripted
counterregulated
primed
primed
Three-year-old children tend to think that the Stroop test is really easy, as compared to 6-year-old children, 12-year-old children, or adults. This is because, in general, 3-year-olds
do not have fully formed schemas.
do not know how to read.
have not made lasting associations between colors and particular objects.
are less likely to rely on automatic processing.
do not know how to read.
Which of the following kinds of thinking can help explain the first instinct fallacy?
ironic processing
counterfactual thinking
magical thinking
automatic processing
counterfactual thinking
The ultimate attribution error is similar to the fundamental attribution error except that it refers to attributions that are __________ as opposed to __________.
extreme, moderate
made in advance (as predictions), made after a behavior has occurred (as explanations)
made about groups, made about individuals
made about oneself, made about others
made about groups, made about individuals
Counterregulation occurs when people indulge in a behavior they are trying to regulate after an initial regulation failure.
True
False
True
It would not be surprising if people overestimated the likelihood for celebrity marriages to end in divorce, since celebrity divorces tend to be highly publicized (while happy celebrity marriages do not as easily make front page news). The overestimation could be explained in terms of
the representativeness heuristic.
the availability heuristic.
the anchoring and adjustment heuristic.
information overload
the availability heuristic.
Social cognition refers to a movement within social psychology that focuses on
how individuals think about social relationships and about other people.
group thinking and group decision-making.
cross-cultural differences in how people think and problem-solve.
conformity, obedience, and crowd mentalities
how individuals think about social relationships and about other people.
The so-called "self-serving bias" refers to the tendency for people to
take credit for their successes but deny blame for their failures.
remember cases in which they succeeded but forget cases in which they failed.
notice when they are better than others at things, but fail to notice when they are worse than others at things.
think that their personal skills, traits, and characteristics are more valuable and desirable than they really are.
take credit for their successes but deny blame for their failures.
The first instinct fallacy refers to the false belief that it is better not to change one's first answer even if one starts to think that a different answer is correct.
True
False
T
Research indicates that __________ and __________ are the two main motivations underlying the self-serving bias.
self-enhancement, self-presentation
self-enhancement, consistency
self-presentation, social comparison
consistency, social comparison
self-enhancement, self-presentation
Which of the following is NOT an explanation for the fundamental attribution error?
Behavior is more noticeable than situational factors.
People are cognitive misers and internal attributions are easier.
Language is richer in situation-type terms than trait terms.
People assign insufficient weight to situational causes even when they are aware of them.
Language is richer in situation-type terms than trait terms.
The "correspondence bias" is another term that is used to refer to
the ultimate attribution error.
the self-serving error.
the covariation principle.
the fundamental attribution error.
the fundamental attribution error.
The fact that men and women report having had very different numbers of sex partners can be almost completely explained by the fact that men have engaged in more homosexual sex.
True
False
F
Research demonstrates that, in counterfactual thinking, people engage in far more __________ than __________.
upward counterfactuals, downward counterfactuals
downward counterfactuals, upward counterfactuals
counterfactuals about past events, counterfactuals about future events
counterfactuals about future events, counterfactuals about past events
upward counterfactuals, downward counterfactuals
The belief that one should not change an answer on a test, even if additional consideration h as led one to believe another answer might be the correct one, is called the
false consensus effect.
magical thinking.
contamination.
first instinct fallacy.
first instinct fallacy.
"Heuristic" is another word for
copy.
opposite.
extreme.
shortcut.
shortcut.
Even though stomach cancer kills more people than plane crashes do, most people tend to assume that plane crashes cause more deaths. This misconception seems to arise from __________, since plane crash fatalities tend to be widely publicized and are therefore relatively easy for people to bring to mind.
the representativeness heuristic.
the availability heuristic.
the anchoring and adjustment heuristic.
information overload
the availability heuristic.
Jacob is taking his psych test. He answers question #31 with “D” but isn’t sure about it. After answering all the other questions, he goes back to 31 and starts to believe that perhaps “C” was the right answer. He decides to stick with “D” probably because of
downward counterfactual thinking.
upward counterfactual thinking.
debiasing.
the first instinct fallacy.
the first instinct fallacy.
The illusion of control tends to produce
more risky behavior.
more conservative behavior.
covariation.
distinctiveness.
more risky behavior.
Your friend Roger has recently been promoted at work to senior vice president. If you made an internal, unstable attribution for Roger's promotion, then you might think to yourself
"Roger probably worked really hard to get that promotion!"
"Roger is just brilliant; everything he touches turns to gold!"
"Well, there is nothing that special about Roger; anyone with his background could have gotten that position."
"There is nothing that special about Roger at all; I think the promotion was a fluke; he seems to have gotten plain lucky!"
"Roger probably worked really hard to get that promotion!"
The field of social cognition first emerged in the __________ as __________.
1920s, a discipline that predated and helped to spur the development of cognitive psychology.
1920s, a discipline that predated and helped to spur the development of, social psychology.
1970s, a movement within social psychology.
1970s, a discipline that is replacing social psychology.
1970s, a movement within social psychology.
The belief that people can control totally chance situations is the
illusion of control.
fundamental attribution error.
availability heuristic.
first instinct fallacy.
illusion of control.
When you go to a restaurant, you know that there is a certain sequence of things that you need to do: (a) wait to be seated, (b) order, (c) eat, and then (d) pay. In other words, you have a __________ for what needs to be done at restaurants.
frame
heuristic
schema
script
script
According to Harold Kelley's attribution theory, people are MOST likely to make internal attributions for others' behaviors when
consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness are all perceived to be low.
consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness are all perceived to be high.
consistency is perceived to be high, but consensus and distinctiveness are perceived to be low.
distinctiveness is perceived to be high, but consistency and consensus are perceived to be low.
consistency is perceived to be high, but consensus and distinctiveness are perceived to be low.
Why did the clown park his car in a red zone, where he might get a ticket? If you assume it is because his car happened to break down right then and there, in the red zone, then you have made
an internal attribution.
an external attribution.
the fundamental attribution error.
the ultimate attribution error.
an external attribution.
The tendency for people to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which they can imagine or mentally visualize it is known as
the representativeness heuristic.
the anchoring and adjustment heuristic.
the simulation heuristic.
the confirmation bias.
the simulation heuristic.
A psychologist who performs research on social cognition would be MOST likely to study
the tendency for people to assume that their faults are more common and widespread than they really are.
the tendency for people to comply with authority figures even when they know that what they are doing is wrong.
the tendency for people to feel deindividuated, or anonymous, when they participate in large, tight-knit groups.
d.
male-female differences in the content of same-gender relationships.
the tendency for people to assume that their faults are more common and widespread than they really are.
Research indicates that __________ engage in counterfactual thinking; and that __________ engage in meta-cognition.
both humans and other animals, both humans and other animals
both humans and other animals, only humans
only humans, both humans and other animals
only humans, only humans
only humans, only humans
The so-called "gambler's fallacy" refers to
the (false) belief that chance events are affected by previous events, and that chance events will "even out" across a relatively short period of time.
the (false) belief that one is far more skilled or gifted than others are.
the (false) belief that one can control or change situations that are completely (or almost completely) due to chance.
the tendency to compare oneself to people who are far, far worse off in order to feel better about oneself.
the (false) belief that chance events are affected by previous events, and that chance events will "even out" across a relatively short period of time.
Research indicates that the topic people think about MOST is
other people.
sex.
work.
money.
other people.
What percent of women in Western countries change their last names to adopt their husband’s last name when they marry?
25%
50%
75%
90%
75%
You flip a coin ten times in a row. Every single time it comes up heads. On the eleventh flip, is it more likely to be heads, tails, or are heads and tails equally likely ? If you are a hot hand player, you will answer
heads.
tails.
heads and tails are equally likely.
that you need time to think it over.
heads.
When people make the fundamental attribution error about entire groups of people (as opposed to individuals), psychologists say that they are making the ultimate attribution error.
True
False
T
Suppose that you meet an old man named Al. You have no idea how old he is. To try to guess his age you start with your grandfather's age (80), and then add on a few years since Al seems to be a little older. That is, you make use of
priming.
counterfactual thinking.
the anchoring and adjustment heuristic.
the simulation heuristic.
the anchoring and adjustment heuristic.
The automatic system of the duplex mind makes use of a series of mental shortcuts in order to obtain quick information about the likelihood of different outcomes. These shortcuts are known as
heuristics.
scripts.
attributions.
schemas.
heuristics.
Suppose that Greg and Marsha both apply for a prestigious scholarship program, and both get rejected. Greg finds out that his application was flat out rejected (he never had a chance), while Marsha finds out that she was the first runner up (she nearly won). Who is likely to be more disappointed? Why?
Greg—because of the simulation heuristic
Greg—because of the confirmation bias
Marsha—because of the simulation heuristic
Marsha—because of the confirmation bias
Marsha—because of the simulation heuristic
Suppose that you are a landlord for an apartment building, and one of your tenants, Gus, has just paid his rent with a "bad check" (i.e., you tried to deposit his rent check in the bank, but the check "bounced" and was returned to you). According to Harold Kelley's attribution theory, in determining what type of attribution to make for this event, one of the questions you are likely to ask yourself is: "Has Gus ever given me a 'bad check' before?" That is, one of the things you are likely to ask about is
consistency information.
consensus information.
distinctiveness information.
priming information.
consistency information.
Roger is a member of his town's most exclusive country club. He plays golf, has a private stable with horses, owns a jet, and is thinking about buying an island. He also drives a Ferrari and a Lamborghini, and only stays at top-tier hotels like the Ritz Carlton and the Four Seasons. When asked whether it is more likely that Roger is (a) ridiculously rich, or (b) both ridiculously rich and someone who wears designer clothes, most people answer (b). By choosing (b), people are engaging in
the base rate fallacy.
the conjunction fallacy.
the illusory correlation.
counterfactual thinking.
the conjunction fallacy.
The Stroop test can be thought of as a demonstration of
the difference between automatic and controlled thinking.
the tendency for nature to say "go" and culture to say "stop."
the tendency for people to "put people first."
the idea that the human brain evolved to effectively relate to other people.
the difference between automatic and controlled thinking.
One explanation for the false consensus effect is that people use their own attitudes and behaviors as "anchors" for predicting others' attitudes and behaviors.
True
False
T
Ingrid is highly educated, nerdy, and outspoken. She loves to read, surf the web, hike, go camping, and cook vegetarian meals. When asked whether it is more likely that Ingrid is (a) a teacher, or (b) both politically liberal and a teacher, most people answer (b). By choosing (b), however, most people are committing
the base rate fallacy.
the conjunction fallacy.
the illusory correlation.
counterfactual thinking.
the conjunction fallacy.
As a child, the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy was once challenged by his older brother to remain standing in a corner until he could stop thinking of a white bear. That is, he was challenged to engage in
ironic processing.
thought suppression.
the confirmation bias.
magical thinking.
thought suppression.
Confucius just fell down a flight of stairs. One of his disciples makes an internal attribution for the fall. What might this disciple be thinking?
"Someone probably pushed Confucius!"
"The stairs were probably very slippery!"
"Confucius is so clumsy!"
"I would have fallen if I were in his position!"
"Confucius is so clumsy!"
In a national poll conducted by ABC News, men reported an average of sex partners and women reported an average of sex partners.
twenty, six
six, twenty
ten, ten
ten, five
"Confucius is so clumsy!"
The so-called illusory correlation can MOST directly help explain
why people tend to think that they are "better than average" on most traits and abilities.
why people tend to overestimate the degree to which members of minority groups engage in criminal behaviors.
why people tend to continue to gamble even when they have hit an "unlucky streak."
why people tend to assume that it is more common for people to die from plane crashes than from lung cancer.
why people tend to overestimate the degree to which members of minority groups engage in criminal behaviors.
Polina is 3 years old. She is just beginning to understand concepts such as "dog," "cat," "chair," and "sofa," and to understand how these concepts differ from one another. In other words, she is just beginning
to employ framing.
to use heuristics.
to develop schemas.
to develop scripts.
to develop schemas.
People tend to want to explore MOST issues thoroughly before making decisions.
True
False
F
Which of the following will NOT help debias someone’s thinking?
Having them take a statistical reasoning class.
Training them how to think reflectively on their problem-solving strategies.
Asking someone to make their decision rules explicit.
Encouraging people to rely more on their memories.
Encouraging people to rely more on their memories.
Research indicates that people are especially likely to engage in the false consensus effect when it comes to __________, and especially likely to engage in the false uniqueness effect when it comes to __________.
their undesirable characteristics, their desirable characteristics
their desirable characteristics, their undesirable characteristics
their unusual characteristics, their more common characteristics
their more common characteristics, their unusual characteristics
their undesirable characteristics, their desirable characteristics
The ultimate attribution error refers to the tendency for people to make internal attributions to explain
other individuals' behaviors.
one's own behaviors.
the behaviors of a close other.
the behaviors of a group.
the behaviors of a group.
When people want to suppress a thought, the conscious mind works to
keep a lookout for anything that might remind them of the unwanted thought.
redirect attention away from the unpleasant thought.
"numb" the mind so that people do not think any thoughts.
"cover up" the unwanted thought with other, competing thoughts.
redirect attention away from the unpleasant thought.
Before the rise of social cognition, the field of social psychology was dominated by
the doctrine of behaviorism.
the doctrine of humanism.
Freudian theory.
Neo-Freudian-theory.
redirect attention away from the unpleasant thought.
When people make internal, stable attributions for others' successes or failures, these attributions tend to concern questions of
ability or talent.
effort or hard work.
ease or difficulty of the task.
luck or chance.
ability or talent.
When people want to suppress a thought, the automatic mind works to
keep a lookout for anything that might remind them of the unwanted thought.
redirect attention away from the unpleasant thought.
"numb" the mind so that people do not think any thoughts.
"cover up" the unwanted thought with other, competing thoughts.
keep a lookout for anything that might remind them of the unwanted thought.
The tendency for people take credit for their successes but deny blame for their failures is known as
the self-serving bias.
unrealistic optimism.
the fundamental attribution error.
the actor-observer effect.
the self-serving bias.
Jorge just received an A+ on a physics exam. If you make an external attribution for this event, then you might well be thinking,
"So what! The exam was really easy. I would have gotten an A+ too."
"Well, I'm still not that impressed. All Jorge ever does is study. If I studied all the time I would get grades like that too."
"Jorge must have some sort of natural gift for physics; he is really smart!"
"Jorge is probably really good at physics, but I bet he does really badly in all of his other classes."
"So what! The exam was really easy. I would have gotten an A+ too."
In theory, it would be possible for a child to have a script of
one of his or her parents.
himself or herself.
what is involved in going to a restaurant.
the advantages of cell phones over land lines.
what is involved in going to a restaurant.
Elenita is from a relatively sheltered background. When she goes to college, she meets a Hispanic student. This student is the only Hispanic person she has ever known. The student is very independent and outspoken on their first meeting. After that meeting, Elenita decides that Hispanics in general must be independent and outspoken. Elenita’s reaction illustrates the
base-rate fallacy.
false consensus effect.
illusory correlation.
one-shot illusory correlation.
one-shot illusory correlation.
"If only I had decided to take a different route home... I wouldn't have hit that stupid tree and ended up getting this huge ticket! Argh!" This thought is an example of
the false uniqueness effect.
illusory correlation.
magical thinking.
counterfactual thinking.
counterfactual thinking.
The tendency for people to overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all is known as
the conjunction fallacy.
the illusory correlation.
the representativeness heuristic.
the base rate fallacy.
the illusory correlation.
Within the field of social cognition, scripts can be thought of as
more elaborate, or complex, versions of schemas.
schemas about events.
preliminary versions of schemas.
finalized versions of schemas.
schemas about events.
Thinking about thinking is called
magical thinking.
meta-cognition.
counterregulation.
information overload.
meta-cognition.
A well-known test used in psychological research plays on the distinction between automatic and controlled processing. The test requires people to look at the written names of several colors ("green," "red," "blue," etc.)—names which are in all cases written in "non-matching" colors of ink (e.g., the word "green" might be written in red ink, while the word "red" might be written in yellow ink)—and to identify, as quickly as possible, the color in which each word is written. This test is known as
the Stroop test.
the Myers-Briggs test.
the Rorschach Inkblots.
the Implicit Association Test (IAT).
the Stroop test.
The simulation heuristic tends to invoke __________ thinking.
debiasing
magical
counterregulatory
counterfactual
counterfactual
Suppose that you meet someone who is smart, adventurous, and highly knowledgeable about rockets and outer space. Even though there are not many astronauts in the world, you might immediately assume that this person is an astronaut just because he or she fits your image of what an astronaut is like. That is, you might __________ and rely on the __________.
commit the base rate fallacy, representativeness heuristic
commit the conjunction fallacy, representativeness heuristic
engage in the confirmation bias, availability heuristic
engage in the false consensus effect, availability heuristic
commit the base rate fallacy, representativeness heuristic
People tend to attribute their own behaviors to situational factors, but to attribute others' behaviors to dispositional factors. This pattern is known as
the fundamental attribution error.
the ultimate attribution error.
the self-serving bias.
the actor-observer effect.
the actor-observer effect.
Reducing errors and biasing by getting people to use controlled rather than automatic processing is called
debiasing.
meta-cognition.
ironic processing.
anchoring.
debiasing.