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19 Cards in this Set

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Biological Theories like evolution look at how we _________ and Behavioral Genetics looks at how we __________ due to ________
Alike
Different
Differences in genes
T/F
Ethologists agree that animals are born with biologically programmed behaviors that come from evolution and adaptation to the environment AND agree that development could not progress much without learning.
True
Even if identical twins are raised in the same home, they have similar shared experiences but they differ in ______
NSE, Non shared experiences
When you get the same score for a measure on repeated trials
Reliablility
When a test measures what it is designed to measure
Validity
What type of study gathers information to see if 2 or more variables are meaningfully related?
Correlational Study
What you measure in an experiment is called the ___________ and what you manipulate in the experiment is called the ________
dependent variable
independent variable
A method of splitting participants into groups so that they are as equivalent to each other as possible
Random Assignment
Which type of design compares 6, 8, and 10 year olds at the same time?
Cross Sectional design
Which type of experimental design tests participants over months or years?
Longitudinal Design
T/F
A longitudinal design can be confounded by a cohort
False
Which perspective states that we are driven by motives and conflicts that we are unaware of and that we are shaped by early experiences?
Psychoanalytic Viewpoint
What are some strengths of Freud's psychoanalytic viewpoint?
Unconscious Motivation
Early experiences influence later development
Emotions are important
Where did Erikson disagree with Freud?
Erikson said that children are explorers of their environment, not just slaves to biological urges.

The ego is more than just a referee.

Cultural urges are more important than biological urges.
What did Behaviorists such as Watson propose?
Children are shaped by environment, not unconscious motives. A child can be trained to be anything.
What did Skinner propose about human and animal behavior?
Humans and animals repeat behaviors that yield a positive outcome and don't repeat behaviors that yield a negative outcome.

Reinforcer - increases chances of a certain behavior

Punisher - decreases chances of a certain behavior
How did Bandura differ from Skinner with relationship to human behavior?
Bandura said that reinforcers and punishers are important but humans think about behavior and its consequences. Children learn many behaviors by modeling.

Children also contribute to their own development by reciprocal interaction.
Which factor contributes more to personality differences, shared experiences or non shared experiences
NSE
What are the levels of Bron's description of the environment
Microsystem - interactions in your immediate surroundings such as family, school, friends, and peers.

Mesosystem - homes, schools, peergroups.

Exosystem - parents work environment

Macrosystem - social class, laws, customs