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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Self Esteem vs. Achievement
- High self esteem motivates a child to achieve
GENDER
- so socially determined
- what it means to be a male or female based on behaviors
- Different cultures have different criteria
- develops early on
PEER PRESSURE
- peers begin to reinforce gender-typed behavior by age 3
- peers influence increases with age
- choices are influenced by peers and the media
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
- Albert Bandura
- does t.v. violence caues aggression
- When a person needs to perform a behavior first he or she has to have an attention span, than motivation to do it. They need the motor skills to replicate the behavior and the ability to remember what he or she saw.
PUNISHMENT
- a stimulus that discourages repetition of behavior
AUTHORITARIAN
- strict and controlling
- high expectations
- lacks communication and dialogue with child
AUTHORITATIVE
- high control and parameters
- high expectations
- communication is open
- most popular and has highest achieving children
NEGLECTFUL
- parent is preoccupied with something else
- no control or parameters
- not caring for children
INDULGENT
- low control, parameters, and structure
- high expectations and indulge the child
- don't know how to parent or they blame others
RELATIONAL AGGRESSION
- damaging another's peer relations through social exclusion or rumor spreading
- type of hostile aggression seen mostly in females
SELF-EFFICACY
- sense of capability to master challenges and achieve goals
BODY IMAGE
- descriptive and evaluative beliefs about one's appearance
ACCIDENTAL INJURIES
- leading cause of death in middle childhood
HOW TO REDUCE INJURY WHEN RIDING A BICYCLE
- use a helmet
PIAGET'S CONCRETE OPERATIONS
- ages 7-12
- A child develops logical but not abstract thinking
- A child can use mental operations to solve actual problems
ENCODING
- process by which information is prepared for long-term storage and later retrieval
MNEMONIC STRATEGIES
- technique to aid memory
- use of external memory aids like rehearsal, organization and elaborations
- external is using something outside of the person
- rehearsal is keeping an item in working memory through conscious repetition
- organization is categorizing material to be remembered
- Elaboration is making mental associations involving items to be remembered
REHEARSAL
- keep an item in working memory through conscious repetition
- saying a number over and over again after looking it up, so not to forget it before dialing
CULTURE FAIR TEST
- a intelligence test that deals with experiences common to various cultures, in an attempt to avoid cultural bias
I.Q. TESTS
- underestimate the intelligence of children who, for one reason or another, do not do well on tests
- tests are timmed so they equate intelligence with speed and penalize a child who works slowly and deliberately
- measure what a child already knows
SYNTAX
- how words are organized into phrases and sentences
- sentence structure becomes more elaborate with age
BILINGUALISM
- fluent in two langues
- children first learn their native language with others who speak it and then switch to regular classes in English when they become more proficient in it.
- The earlier children are exposed to other languages the more time they spend speaking it and the better they learn it.
DYSLEXIA
- developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age
GIFTED CHILDREN
- controversial qualifications
- children who have shown high potential or achievement in one or more of the following: general intellect, specific aptitude, creative or productive thinking, leadership, talent in the arts, and psychomotor ability
- multiple criteria is used for admission to gifted programs like achievement tests scores, grades, classroom performance, creative production, parent and teacher nominations, and student interviews
- put in enrichment or accleration programs
EMOTIONAL SELF REGULATION
- as children grow older, they are more aware of their own and other people's feelings
- older children can better regulate their emotional expression in social situations and they can respond to others' emotional distress
FEELINGS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW SELF ESTEEM
- overly concerned about performance in social situations
- attribute rejection to their own personality deficiencies, which they believe are helpless to change
- repeat unsuccessful strategies to gain approval or give up
INDUSTRY VERSUS INFERIORITY
- Erickson's fourth stage of psychosocial development involving kids in middle childhood
- children must learn the productive skills their culture requires or else face feelings of inferiority.
EMPATHY AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
- children become more empathic and more inclined to prosocial behavior in middle childhood.
- 7-8 years
TRADITIONAL AND NONTRADITIONAL FAMILY STRUCTURES
- nontraditional families are progressively increasing.
- nontraditional families consist of a single parental figure in the household, gay or lesbians, and grandparent headed families
- Traditional families consisted of two married, heterosexual biological or adoptive parents
- Children tend to do better in traditional families
WHO DO KIDS GENERALLY LIVE WITH AFTER DIVORCE
- mother
PEER GROUPS
- comes into its own in children in their school years
- groups form naturally among children who live near one another or go to school together
- 5 to 18
FUNCTIONS OF A PEER GROUP
- groups generate unique values and standards for behavior, and a social structure of leaders and followers
- develops friendships in order to foster trusts and sensitivity
WHAT DOES A PEER GROUP LOOK LIKE DURING MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
- organized based on proximmity (being in the same classroom/grade), sex, and ethnicity
BASIS FOR SELECTING A FRIEND IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
- more selective and stable
- mutually agreed upon
- children like eath other's personal qualities and respond to one another's needs and desires
SOURCES OF STRESS IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
- pressures of modern life are forcing children to grow up too soon.
- expected to succeed in schoo, compete in sporta, and meet parents' emotional needs
- exposed to many adult problems on television and in real life before they master the problems of childhood like sex and violence
change schols and leave old friends
- tightly scheduled pace of life
LEARNING THEORY
- behaviorist
- based on reinforcement and punishment
- cognitive development due to experiences
- the more you know the greater the ability to reason
CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION
- mood disorder characterized by such symptoms as a prolonged sense of friendlessness, inability to have fun or concentrate, fatigue, extreme activity or apathy, feelings of worthlessness, weight change, physical complaints, and thoughts of death and suicide