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30 Cards in this Set

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Top-Down Processes
Processes that make use of knowledge.
Bottom-Up Processes
Processes that begin with locul stimulus features and bring them together to form a perception of the whole
Goal Directed Selection
Volunatarily choose object to attend to.
Cocktail-party effect
Can listen to and understand one person's voice while ignoring all others.
Stimulus Drive Capture
Sometimes stimuli in environment automatically capture attention.
Treisman's Feature Integration Theory of Attention
Putting together features of an object to form a complete precept requires focal attention.
Posner Task
Events attended to can be responded to more quickly.
Serial Visual Search
If an object is made up of a conjunction of features, must use this to find it.
Illusory Conjunctions
If overload subject's attention (e.g. by briefly flashing a display), get errors in feature combinations.
Change Blindness
Only detect changes in attended items.
Ex. Neisser Experiment.
Behaviorism
An attempt to understand behavior as the relationship between OBSERVABLE stimuli and OBSERVABLE responses.
-Learning is Emphasized
-Recognize two different learning processes (classical and operant conditioning)
Classical Conditioning
The pairing of a neutral stim (NS) with a stim (UCS) which already elicits a reflexive response (UCR) results in the previously neutral stim alone (CS) provoking a similar response (CR)
Operant Conditioning
The consequences of a response increase or decrease the likelihood that the response will occur again.
UCS
Unconditioned Stimulus — A stimulus that automatically elicits a response.
UCR
Unconditioned Response — The automatic response to a UCS.
Reflex
UCS—>UCR (e.g. meat —> salivate)
NS
Neutral Stimulus—A stimulus which does not elicit a reflexive response (white lab coat, tone); may elicit an orienting response.
CS
Conditioned Stimulus—A neutral stimulus (e.g. tone) which comes to elicit a response (CR)
CR
Conditioned Response—A reflex like response to the CS (e.g. salivation)
Conditioned Reflex
CS —> CR (e.g. tone—> salivate)
Temporal Contiguity
Conditioned stimulus must PRECEDE unconditioned stimulus by a very short time.
Contigency
Conditioned stimulus must reliably predict unconditioned stimulus' occurrence.
Extinction
Disappearance of a conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is withheld.
Stimulus gneralization and discrimination
Change the conditioned stimulus slightly
Classical Conditioning
Learning predictable signals.
Operant Conditioning
Learning process by which the consequences of a response affects the likelihood that the response will occur in the future.
Law of Effect
The behavior of an organism is controlled by the effects it produces. That is, an animal will repeat behavior it is rewarded for. The stimulus after the behavior shapes the behavior.
Discriminative Stimulus
A cue that a particular response will be reinforced.
Shaping
What if animal never emits the desired response? Successively closer approximations to the desired response are reinforced until the response finally occurs.
Partial Reinforcement Schedules
Reward only some of the resonses. Overall, leads to better learning