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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the three stages or types of memory?
sensory, short term, and long term.
What are the characteristics and purpose of sensory memory?
Enviormental information is registered
Large capacity for information
Duration 1/4 second to 3 seconds
What are the characteristics and purpose of short term memory?
New information is transferred from sensory memory.
Old information is retrieved from long term memory.
Limited capacity for information
Duration apporx 30 seconds
What are the characteristics and purpose of long term memory?
Information that has been encoded in short term memory is stored
Unlimited capacity for information
Duration : potentially permanent
What is chunking? When does it occur?
Increasing the amount of infromation that can be held in the short term memory by grouping related items together into a sing unit or chunk happens during recall
What is clustering? When does it occur?
Organizing items into related groups during recall from the long term memory.
What is Maintenance rehearsal? Which stage of memory does it occur?
The mental or verbal repetition of information in order to maintin it beyond the usual 30 seconds of short term memory.
What is encoding?
The process of transforming information into a form that can be entered into a retained by the memory system.
What is elaborative rehearsal? which stage of memory does it occur?
Focusing on the meaning of information to help encode and transfer it into long term memory. Short term memory
What is procedural memory?
In long term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations and actions.
What is episodic memory?
Includes memories of particular events(including time and place)
what is semantic memory?
General knowledge that includes facts, names, definitons, concepts and ideas. Personal encyclopedia of accumulated data.
What are implicit memories?
Information of knowledge that affects behavior behavior or task, but cannot be conciously recollected. also called nondeclarative memory.
What are explicit memories?
Information or knowledge that can be conciously recollected, also called declarative memory.
How are memories organized?
With the semantic network model - through clusters and associations.
What are the four potential causes of forgetting?
Encoding Failure
Interference
motivated forgetting
decay
What are retrieval cues?
A clue prompt or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long term memory.
What is memory consolidation?
The gradual physical process of converting new long term memories to stable enduring long term memory codes.
What does the study using aplysia show?
That memories affect both the structure and the functions of neurons.
What is the decay theory?
The view that forgetting is due to normal metabolic processes that occur in the brain over time.
What is serial position effect?
The tendency to remember items at the beginning and end of a list better then items in the middle
Who is Herman Ebbinghaus and what is his forgetting curve?
German psychologist who originated the scientific study of forgetting;plotted the first forgetting curve, which describes the basic pattern of forgetting learned information over time.
What is distributed practice?
Learn information over several sessions - more benefical then massed practice.
What is massed practice?
cramming (studying the night before an exam.)
What is Recall?
Producing information using no retrival cues.
What is cued recall?
Involves remembering an item of information in response to a retrieval cue. E.x Fill in the blank questions
What is recognition?
Identifying the information from several choices. Ex. Multiple choices.
How do we reconstruct memories?
You actively reconstruct or rebuild the memory.
What is source confusion?
Occurs when we either don't remember or misidentify the source of a memory.
What is the misinformation effect?
A memory distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information.