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58 Cards in this Set
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Prefrontal Lobotomy

Surgical procedure that severs fibres connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus.

Heuristics

Mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world.

Representativeness

Heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype.

Base Rate

How common a characteristic or behaviour is in the general population.

Availability

Heuristic that involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds.

Cognitive Biases

Systematic errors in thinking.

Hindsight Bias

Tendency to overestimate how well we could have successfully forecast known outcomes.

Overconfidence

Tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions.

Naturalistic Observation

Watching behavior in realworld settings.

External Validity

Extent to which we can generalize findings to realworld settings.

Internal Validity

Extent to which we can draw causeandeffect infernces from a study.

Case Study

Research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period.

Existence Proofs

Demonstrations that a given psychological phenomenon can occur.

Correlational Design

Research design that examines the extent to which two variables are association.

Scatterplot

Grouping of points ona twodimensional graph in which each dot represents a single person's data.

Illusory Correlation

Perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists.

Experiment

Research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable.

Random Assignment

Randomly sorting participants into two groups.

Experimental Group

In an experiment, that group of participants that receives the manipulation.

Control Group

In an experiment, that group of participants that doesn't receive the manipulation.

Independent Variable

Variable that an experimenter manipulates.

Dependent Variable

Variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect.

Confound

Any differnce between the experimental and control groups other than the independent variable.

MetaAnalysis

Investigation of the consistency of patterns of results across large numbers of studies conducted in differnt laboratories.

File Drawer Problem

Tendency for negative findings to remain unpublished.

Placebo Effect

Improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement.

Blind

Unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group.

Nocebo Effect

Harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm.

Experimenter Expectancy Effect

Phenomenon in which researchers' hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of the study.

DoubleBlind

When neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group.

Hawthorne Effect

Phenomenon in which participants' knowledge that they're being studied can affect their behavior.

Demand Characteristics

Cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher's hypotheses.

Random Selection

Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate.

Reliability

Consistency of measurement.

Validity

Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure.

Response Sets

Tendencies of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items.

Informed Consent

Informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate.

Statistics

Application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data.

Descriptive Statistics

Numerical characterizations that describe data.

Central Tendency

Measure of the "central" scores in a data set, or where the group tends to cluster.

Mean

Average, a measure of central tendency.

Median

Middle score of a data set; a measure of central tendency.

Mode

Most frequent score of a data set; a measure of central tendency.

Dispersion

Measure of how loosely or tightly bunched scores are.

Range

Difference between highest and lowest scores; a measure of dispersion.

Standard Deviation

Measure of dispersion that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean.

Inferential Statistics

Mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population.

Explain what research designs accomplish that we can't discover by intuition alone.

Numerous examples from history and recent times demonstrate that our intuitions that a particular phenomenon has occurred can be wrong. Only when there is an objective, consistent, replicable measure can we confirm our subjective hunches.

Identify heuristics and biases that prevent us from thinking clearly about psychology.

Our heuristics are highly useful but can sometimes steer us wrong. Representativeness and availability heuristics can lead us to rely too heavily on inaccurate measures of the probability of events. Biases such as hindsight bias and overconfidence can lead us to overestimate our ability to predict outcomes accurately.

Distinguish the types of research designs and the conclusions we can learn from each.

Four key types of research designs are naturalistic observation, case studies, correlational designs, and experimental designs. Naturalistic observation involves recording behaviours in realworld settings but are often not carefully controlled. Case studies involve examining one or a few individuals over long periods of time; these designs are often useful in generating hypotheses but limited in testing them rigorously. Correlational studies allow us to establish the relations among two or more measures, but do not allow causal conclusions. Experimental designs involve random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable, and they allow us to draw conclusions about the causes of a particular behavior.

Identify the potential pitfalls of each research design that can lead to faulty conclusions.

Placebo effects, experimenter expectancy effects, and response sets are examples of problems in research designs that can lead to faulty conclusions. Other limitations, such as halo effects and errors of central tendency often arise for rating data.

Explain the ethical obligations of researchers toward their research participants.

Concerns about ethical treatment of research participants have led research institutions to establish research ethics baords (REBs) that review all research and require informed consent by participants. In some cases, they may also require a full debriefing at the conclusion of the research session.

Describe both sides of the debate on the use of animals as research subjects.

Animal research has led to clear benefits in our understanding of human learning, brain physiology, and psychological treatment, to mention only a few advances. To answer many critcal psychological questions, there are simply no good alternatives to using animals. Those who question the ethics of animal research have raised useful questions about the treatment of these animals and emphasized the need for adequate housing and feeding conditions. Many protest the large number of laboratory animals that are used each year and question whether animal research offers sufficient external validity to justify such uses.

Explain how to calculate measures of central tendency.

Three measures of central tendency are mean, median, and mode. The mean is the average of all scores. The median is the middle score. The mode is the most frequest score.

Identify uses of various measures of central tendency and dispersion.

Among the three measures of central tendency, the mean is the most widely used measure and is also the most sensitive to extreme scores. Two measures of dispersion are the range and standard deviation. THe range is a more intuitive measure of variability, but can yield a deceptive pictures of how spread out or clustered individual scores are. The standard deviation is a better measure of dispersion, although it is more difficult to calculate.

Show how statistics can be misused for purposes of persuasion.

Reporting measures of central tendency that are nonrepresentative of most participants, creating visual representations that exaggerate effects, and failing to take base rates into account are all frequent methods of manipulating statistics for the purposes of persuasion.

Identify flaws in research designs.

Good research design requires not only random assignment and manipulation of an independent variable, but also inclusion of an appropriate control consition to rule out placebo effects. Most important, it requires careful attention to the possibility of alternative explanations of observed effects.

Identify skills for evaluating psychological claims in the popular media.

To evaluate psychological claims in the news and elsewhere in the popular media, we should bear in mind that few psychology reporters have formal psychological training. When considering media claims, we should consider the source, bewards of excessive sharpening and levelling, and be on the lookout for pseudosymmetry.
