Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/58

Click to flip

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prefrontal Lobotomy
Surgical procedure that severs fibres connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus.
Heuristics
Mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world.
Representativeness
Heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype.
Base Rate
How common a characteristic or behaviour is in the general population.
Availability
Heuristic that involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds.
Cognitive Biases
Systematic errors in thinking.
Hindsight Bias
Tendency to overestimate how well we could have successfully forecast known outcomes.
Overconfidence
Tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions.
Naturalistic Observation
Watching behavior in real-world settings.
External Validity
Extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings.
Internal Validity
Extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect infernces from a study.
Case Study
Research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period.
Existence Proofs
Demonstrations that a given psychological phenomenon can occur.
Correlational Design
Research design that examines the extent to which two variables are association.
Scatterplot
Grouping of points ona two-dimensional graph in which each dot represents a single person's data.
Illusory Correlation
Perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists.
Experiment
Research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable.
Random Assignment
Randomly sorting participants into two groups.
Experimental Group
In an experiment, that group of participants that receives the manipulation.
Control Group
In an experiment, that group of participants that doesn't receive the manipulation.
Independent Variable
Variable that an experimenter manipulates.
Dependent Variable
Variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect.
Confound
Any differnce between the experimental and control groups other than the independent variable.
Meta-Analysis
Investigation of the consistency of patterns of results across large numbers of studies conducted in differnt laboratories.
File Drawer Problem
Tendency for negative findings to remain unpublished.
Placebo Effect
Improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement.
Blind
Unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group.
Nocebo Effect
Harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm.
Experimenter Expectancy Effect
Phenomenon in which researchers' hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of the study.
Double-Blind
When neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group.
Hawthorne Effect
Phenomenon in which participants' knowledge that they're being studied can affect their behavior.
Demand Characteristics
Cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher's hypotheses.
Random Selection
Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate.
Reliability
Consistency of measurement.
Validity
Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure.
Response Sets
Tendencies of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items.
Informed Consent
Informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate.
Statistics
Application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data.
Descriptive Statistics
Numerical characterizations that describe data.
Central Tendency
Measure of the "central" scores in a data set, or where the group tends to cluster.
Mean
Average, a measure of central tendency.
Median
Middle score of a data set; a measure of central tendency.
Mode
Most frequent score of a data set; a measure of central tendency.
Dispersion
Measure of how loosely or tightly bunched scores are.
Range
Difference between highest and lowest scores; a measure of dispersion.
Standard Deviation
Measure of dispersion that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean.
Inferential Statistics
Mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population.
Explain what research designs accomplish that we can't discover by intuition alone.
Numerous examples from history and recent times demonstrate that our intuitions that a particular phenomenon has occurred can be wrong. Only when there is an objective, consistent, replicable measure can we confirm our subjective hunches.
Identify heuristics and biases that prevent us from thinking clearly about psychology.
Our heuristics are highly useful but can sometimes steer us wrong. Representativeness and availability heuristics can lead us to rely too heavily on inaccurate measures of the probability of events. Biases such as hindsight bias and overconfidence can lead us to overestimate our ability to predict outcomes accurately.
Distinguish the types of research designs and the conclusions we can learn from each.
Four key types of research designs are naturalistic observation, case studies, correlational designs, and experimental designs. Naturalistic observation involves recording behaviours in real-world settings but are often not carefully controlled. Case studies involve examining one or a few individuals over long periods of time; these designs are often useful in generating hypotheses but limited in testing them rigorously. Correlational studies allow us to establish the relations among two or more measures, but do not allow causal conclusions. Experimental designs involve random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable, and they allow us to draw conclusions about the causes of a particular behavior.
Identify the potential pitfalls of each research design that can lead to faulty conclusions.
Placebo effects, experimenter expectancy effects, and response sets are examples of problems in research designs that can lead to faulty conclusions. Other limitations, such as halo effects and errors of central tendency often arise for rating data.
Explain the ethical obligations of researchers toward their research participants.
Concerns about ethical treatment of research participants have led research institutions to establish research ethics baords (REBs) that review all research and require informed consent by participants. In some cases, they may also require a full debriefing at the conclusion of the research session.
Describe both sides of the debate on the use of animals as research subjects.
Animal research has led to clear benefits in our understanding of human learning, brain physiology, and psychological treatment, to mention only a few advances. To answer many critcal psychological questions, there are simply no good alternatives to using animals. Those who question the ethics of animal research have raised useful questions about the treatment of these animals and emphasized the need for adequate housing and feeding conditions. Many protest the large number of laboratory animals that are used each year and question whether animal research offers sufficient external validity to justify such uses.
Explain how to calculate measures of central tendency.
Three measures of central tendency are mean, median, and mode. The mean is the average of all scores. The median is the middle score. The mode is the most frequest score.
Identify uses of various measures of central tendency and dispersion.
Among the three measures of central tendency, the mean is the most widely used measure and is also the most sensitive to extreme scores. Two measures of dispersion are the range and standard deviation. THe range is a more intuitive measure of variability, but can yield a deceptive pictures of how spread out or clustered individual scores are. The standard deviation is a better measure of dispersion, although it is more difficult to calculate.
Show how statistics can be misused for purposes of persuasion.
Reporting measures of central tendency that are nonrepresentative of most participants, creating visual representations that exaggerate effects, and failing to take base rates into account are all frequent methods of manipulating statistics for the purposes of persuasion.
Identify flaws in research designs.
Good research design requires not only random assignment and manipulation of an independent variable, but also inclusion of an appropriate control consition to rule out placebo effects. Most important, it requires careful attention to the possibility of alternative explanations of observed effects.
Identify skills for evaluating psychological claims in the popular media.
To evaluate psychological claims in the news and elsewhere in the popular media, we should bear in mind that few psychology reporters have formal psychological training. When considering media claims, we should consider the source, bewards of excessive sharpening and levelling, and be on the lookout for pseudosymmetry.