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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Learning
A relatively permanence change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Associative Learning
Learning that certain events occur together
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which one learns to line two or more stimuli and anticipate events
Behaviorism
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental progress
Unconditioned Response
In classical conditional conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salvation when food is in the mouth
Unconditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally - naturally and automatically - triggers a response
Conditioned Response
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but not conditioned) stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Acquisition
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response.
Higher-order Conditioning
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
Extinction
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Generalization
The tendency, one a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Discrimination
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Respondent Behavior
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
Operant Behavior
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Law of Effect
Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Operating Chamber
In operant conditioning research, a chamber containing a bara or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pressing
Shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Reinforcer
In operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Positive Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food
Negative Reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock
Primary Reinforcer
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Conditioned Reinforcer
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Partial (Intermittent) reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction that does continuous reinforcement
Fixed-ratio Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Variable-ration Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Fixed-Interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Variable-interval Schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Punishment
An event that decreases behavior that it follows
Cognitive Map
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Intrinsic Motivation
A desire to preform a behavior effectively for its own sake
Extrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Modeling
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Mirror Neurons
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
Prosocial Behavior
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior