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17 Cards in this Set

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Three kinds of learning
classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning/modeling
Pavlov's experiment
This scientist observed that his dogs would salivate at the sight of food or the sound of rattling dishes, he realized that this salivation reflex was the result of learning.
CS: a tone
CR: dog salivates after hearing the tone
UR: dog salivates to food
US: food
Extinction in classical & operant conditioning
When the dog no longer needs to see the food to salivate, when the tone rings the dog salivates. The US is extinct.
Generalization vs. Discrimination
tendency to make the learned response to a stimulus similar to that for which the response was origionally reinforced.

stimulus that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded, ignored, or punished
How fear & taste aversions are alike according to Seligman
Humans who have suffered painful experiences that could neither avoid nor escape may also experience learned helplessness. Then, they may simply give up and react to disappointment in life by becoming inactive, withdrawn, and depressed.
What recovering drug addicts should avoid.
Disinhibitory effect
Thorndike's Law of Effect
consequence, or effect, of a response will determine whether the tendency to respond in the same way in the future will be strengthened or weakened.
Reinforcer
anything that follows a response and strengthens it or increases the probablilty that it will occur
The shaping process
operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behavior (response) by reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response, thereby gradually guiding the responses
Primary vs. Secondary reinforcers
reinforcer that fufills a basic physical need for survival and does not depend on learning

reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers.
Partial vs. Continuous reinforcement
pattern of reinforcement in which some but not all correct responses are reinforced.

reinforcement that is administered after every desired or correct response; the most effective method of conditioning a new response
Schedules of reinforcement
fixed ratio => reinforcer is given after a fixed number of correct, nonreinforced responses

variable-ratio => reinforcer is given after a varying number of nonreinforced responses, based on an average ratio

fixed-interval => reinforcer is given following the first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed

variable-interval => reinforcer is given after the first correct response that follows a varying time of nonreinforcement, based on an average time
Escape vs. Avoidance learning
avoidance => learning to avoid events or conditions associated with aversive consequences or phobias

escape => learning to perform a behavior because it prevents or terminates an aversive event
Uses for operant conditioning procedures
shape behavior of animals, biofeedback, behavior modification
operant vs. classical conditioning
operant => consequences of behavior are manipulated in order to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response

classical => an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another
Fear of snakes in humans and apes.
biological predisposition
Using food as "scapegoats"
The researchers found that when an unusual or unfamiliar food becomes the "scapegoat", or target for a taste aversion, other foods in the patient's diet may be protected, and the patient wil continue to eat them regularly.