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53 Cards in this Set

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blindsight
seeing without being aware. the brain still lights up as if it is seeing something (just a different section lights up) that you think is our of your vision (if you got brain damage to your vision) but your brain can still track it but you cannot
The visual cortex is located in the __________________ of the brain.
back
The parts of the brain that enable consciousness and our ability to communicate that awareness are located in the:
frontal lobes
are all memories true?
no think of the hot air balloon experiment where they make people believe a memory that never happened. and 50% fell for it
the brain wiring of the prefrontal cortex is not complete until the
early 20s
Information processing is guided by higher-level mental processes such as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. This process is called:
top-down processing
Sensory analysis starts at the entry level (i.e., with the sensory receptors) and works up to the integration of sensory information in the brain. This process is called:
bottom-up processing.
______________ is the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
psychophysics
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters is called the:
pupil
The phenomenon of blindsight best illustrates that visual information can be processed without:
conscious awareness.
According to the Gestalt psychologists, we tend to fill in the gaps to create a complete, whole object. This is called the principle of:
continuity
A famous Hollywood director has decided to present his latest film in 3-D. This will create a great movie-going experience for viewers as 3-D movies exaggerate:
retinal disparity
Even when seen through sunglasses, grass appears equally as green as it does without glasses. This best illustrates:
color constancy.
Steffan has volunteered to participate in an experiment studying vision. He has agreed to wear a pair of glasses that invert his vision. Due to _____________, after about a week, he is able to perform his usual tasks, like riding a bike or reading a book.
perceptual adaptation
Once John learned of Sara’s abusive past, he began to perceive her cautious behavior around men as more self-protective rather than rude. This best illustrates the impact of:
perceptual set
All of the following are true regarding deafness EXCEPT:
A. deafness is not a disability.
B. native signers are not linguistically challenged.
C. sign language is a complete language.
D. the deaf culture advocates support cochlear implant
D
Researchers conditioned a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n):
unconditioned stimulus
Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when she first met her cousin’s new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates:
spontaneous recovery.
Watson and Pavlov agreed that:
the laws of learning are the same for all animals
The predictability of an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) facilitates an organism’s ability to expect or anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a _____________ perspective.
cognitive
Findings from Garcia’s research on taste aversion in rats indicate that:
rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds.
All of the following are Pavlov’s major contributions to the field of psychology EXCEPT:
A. the discipline of psychology could be based on objective laboratory methods.
B. significant psychological phenomena can be studied objectively.
C. principles of learning apply across species.
D. his methods demonstrated the importance of subjective judgments.
D
One of Pavlov’s major contributions to the field of psychology was to show how:
the discipline of psychology could be based on objective laboratory methods.
Classical and operant conditioning are similar in many ways. Which of the following processes does NOT apply to both types of learning?
involuntary response to stimuli
Matt regularly buckles his seatbelt simply because it turns off the car’s irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:
negative reinforcement (taking something he doesn't like away)
Jack finds it extremely difficult to pull himself away from the blackjack table. He keeps thinking he will break even as the next hand will be his winning one. This is a ________ schedule.
variable interval
Although Skinner and other behaviorists did not think that it was necessary to refer to thoughts or expectations when explaining human learning, findings from experiments with rats suggest otherwise. Which of the following findings suggests that cognitive processes are involved in operant learning:
Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes.
Children who are promised a payoff for playing with an interesting toy have later been observed to play with the toy less than those who are not promised the reward. These findings provide support for the role of _________________ in operant behavior.
cognitive processes
Critics of B. F. Skinner were concerned that:
he dehumanized people because he ignored the existence of personal freedom and dignity.
An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of:
mirror nuerons
Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children’s behavior?
Bandura
Johnny is “hammering” the nail in with his toy hammer as his father is hammering the deck boards. His behavior is a clear example of:
modeling
Which of the following is evidence for the environmental (as opposed to genetic) transmission of aggression?
Monkeys who were reared apart from their mothers and exposed to high levels of aggression showed greater aggression as adults.
Which of the following factors would be important in the acquisition of aggressive behaviors through observational learning?
models who commit violent acts but go unpunished
You are conducting a research study with 24 men on the effects of movies and sexual violence. You will have the men watch three violent films over the next two days and then assess their attitudes toward women and violent sexual acts by reading actual cases of rape victims. You find that:
the men expressed less sympathy for the rape victims.
Studies have shown that exposure to violence also _________________ viewers when later viewing other violent on television.
desentitizes
He said that, “If we remembered everything, we should on most occasions be as ill off as if we remembered nothing.”
James
Events that are forgotten are like books that cannot be found in a library. Which of the following scenarios can BEST be used to explain the encoding problem?
the book was never purchased
You are discussing the current political situation and forget who the Secretary of State is. You know that it is on the tip-of-your-tongue but you can’t remember it. This is also known as:
blocking
Walid has been working 70-hour work weeks and has been getting his days and nights mixed up as well as separating his dreams from reality. Just yesterday he thought a project had been completed, but in reality in what only a dream. This problem is known as:
source amnesia
After being verbally threatened by a person in a passing car, Teresa was asked if she recognized the MAN who was driving the car. Several hours later, Teresa mistakenly recalled that the driver was male rather than female. Teresa’s experience best illustrates:
the misinformation affect
Some individuals have an amazing ability to remember things. For example, Russian Journalist Shereshevskii could remember up to _______ digits or words.
70
Participants in a study conducted by Haber were shown more than 2,500 slides of faces and places for only 10 seconds each. Later, they were shown 280 of these slides, paired with an unseen slide, and they were able to recognize _______ percent of the slides they had seen before.
90
Professor Wallace studies memory in people who have had strokes. Professor Hansen studies people who claim to have clear memories of events that happened over three decades ago. Such research on the extremes of memory:
helps us understand how memory works
The retention of encoded information over time is called:
storage
In Atkinson and Shiffrin’s three-stage processing model we record information in which order?
sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory
The three-stage model of memory developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin has been criticized because it does not take into account:
that some information is processed into long-term memory without our conscious awareness.
Ricardo distributes his study time rather than cramming because he wants to retain the information for the long-term. He is using the:
spacing effect
Although Jordan cannot recall the exact words of a poem he heard recently, he clearly remembers the poem’s meaning. This best illustrates the importance of:
semantic encoding
____________ is our brief sensory memory of auditory stimuli. This type of memory only lasts for about 3 to 4 seconds before fading away.
echoic memory
George Miller’s research on short-term memory capacity indicated that we can only store ____________ in our short-term memory.
about 7 bits of memory (give or take 2)
Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?
long-term potentiation
When you encode a piece of target information, other bits of information become associated with it. The bits of information connected with the target information are known as:
retrieval cues