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34 Cards in this Set

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describes the two-year span preceding puberty during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place.
Secondary sex characteristics
physical features that distinguish one gender from the other but that are not essential for reproduction (ex:boys, deep voice, facial hair...girls, breast growth and fat deposits)
the stage that marks the beginning of adolescence and during which sexual functions reach maturity. During puberty, the primary sex characteristics-the structurs necessary for reproduction- develop fully. (boys: testes, penis...irls: ovaries, vagina etc)
the first occurence of menstruation
refers to having a relatively clear and stable sense of who one is in the larger society
Identity foreclosure
a premature commitment to visions, values, and roles prescribed by one's parents.
involves delaying commitment for a while to experiment with alternative ideologies
Identity achievement
is arriving at a sense of self and direction after some consideration of alternative possibilities
Social clock
is a person's notion of a developmental schedule that specifies what he or she should have accomplished by certain points in life
Erikson's theory: Intimacy vs. Isolation
1. Intimate: individuals in this status are capable of forming open and close relatinoships with both male and female friends and are involved in a committed relationship
2. Preintimate: Although people in this category are capable of mature, reciprocal relationships, they haven't yet experienced a committed relationship beause they don't want to committ.
3. Stereotyped: Men and women in this status have relationships that are superficial and not very close. They often see eachother as object to manipulate rather than to share with.
4. Psedudointimate: These individuals are typically involved in a relatively permanent relationship, but it resembles the stereotyped relationship in quality.
5. Isolate: Isolates avoid socil situations and appear to be loners whose social interactions consist of casual conversations with a few acquaintances.
Midlife crisis
a turbulent period of doubts and reppraisal of one's life
individual cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information
is an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that invlude memory impairment.
the time when menstruation ceases
The Process of Dying- Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
Stage 1: Denial. Shock, and disbelief are the first reactions to being informed of a serious life-terminating illness
Stage 2: Anger. After denial, the patient often becomes nasty, demanding, difficult, and hostile.
Stage 3: Bargaining. In this stage the patient wants more time and asks for favors to postpone death; frequently with God.
Stage 4: Depression. Depression is a signial that the acceptance process has really begun.
Stage 5: Acceptance. The person who achieves acceptance has taken care of unfinished busines. The patient has relinquished the unattainable and is now reay to die. He or she will want to be with close family.
or the painful loss of a loved one through death
refers to the formal practices o an individual and a community in response to a death
The Grieving Process
Stage 1: Numbness. Peole are dazed and confused, and may experience physical reactions such as nausea or tightness in the chest or throat.
Stage 2: Yearning. Here, people try to recover the lost person. People may report that they see the deceased and may wander as if they are searching for the loved one.
Stage 3: Disorganization and dispair. Searching for the loved one ceases and the loss is accepted as real. People often experience fatigue and a need to sleep much more than usual.
Stage 4: Reorganization. People are able to resume their normal routines at home or at work.
Infant attachment
the emotional bond between infant and mother
Primary sex characteristics develop during_____; secondary sex characteristics develop during______.
puberty, pubescence
Optimal adjustment is associated with puberty arriving ____ for girls and ____ for boys.
on time; early
Some high-risk behavior seen in adolescence is probably caused by;
the personal fable
Which of the following statements about storm and stress in adolescence is false?
a) Conflicts with parents increase during adolescence
b) Adolescents experience more volatile emptions than younger or older individuals do.
c) Adolescents engage in more risk behaviors than children do.
D) Heightened emotional turmoil in adolescence is found in al cultures.
According to Erikson, the psychosocial conflict of middle adulthood is:
generativity (concern of welfare of future generations) versus stagnation (self-absorbtion)
The life stage that involves more role changes than any other is:
early adulthood
Which of the following is a false statement about retirement?
A) Retirement typically has a negative impact on overall health and life satisfaction.
b) The best-adjusted retirees have an adequate income, good health, and a social network.
c) Most older adults maintain their ties to their children.
d) Retirement is typically a gradual process of cutting back on work hours over a period of years.
With regard to whether personality changes with age, it can be concluded that:
some traits change over time, and some traits remain the same
Less anxiety about death is found among those who:
have a well-formulated philosophy of death
Baumrind's authorative parenting stype is characterized by:
high acceptance and high control
Mary Ainsworth
Studied maternal behavior and infant-mother attachment; avoidant attacment style tends to ignore their mothers. Anxious-ambivalent style seem to desire contact, yet they resist her when she comes. Securely attached style has welcome contact with their mothers.
Diana Baumrind
Developed theory about parenting and parental control. Authoratative parents are high acceptance and high control (most effective). Authoritarian parents (low acceptance and high control). Permissive parents (high acceptance and low control). Neglectful parents (low acceptance, low control)
David Elkind
Uses the term identity. In his theory, the stage of adolescence is pivotal importance; the challenge of this period is achieving identity
Erik Erikson
Identity emerges out of an "identity crisis" or period of personal questioning. It usually ends with a commitment to a specific career and personal value stystem. (see identity foreclosure, moratorium, identity diffusion, and identity achievement) pg. 307 has the stages of psychosocial development
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
the stages of dying (see the stages of dying notecard)