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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is definition of Memory.

What is purpose of memory.
Ability to retain and retrieve information.

To benefit from learning which helps us adapt to our environment.
What influences memory?
Like perception, memory is influenced by our beliefs, emotional needs, wishes, and neurosis.
Descr Jean Paiget example of distorted memory.
Paiget (dev psych) as a child had a nanny. As a toddler there was an incident where the nanny had to fight off a would be kidnapper that tried to abduct little Jean. She even had scratches on her face. Piaget vividly recalls this incident. However many years later nanny wrote to family (returning a reward they gave her for saving Jean) and stating that she couldnt keep it in good conscience b/c she made the whole story up b/c she was running late and didnt want to get into trouble.
B/c Piaget had vivid memories of the incident THF concluded that what he that had occured must have been told to him and he incorporated the story into his memory and came to believe the story. Alot of what we believe about our childhood may have simply been stories told to us
Descr Elizabeth Loftus/speeding car example of distorted memory?
She showed a series of slides depicting a speeding car zooming past a stop sign and crashing into a parked car and a group of students. She then asked the students what color the car was that went past the yeild sign (chg fr stop sign to yeild). Then showed them 2 slides One w stop sign and other w yeild sign and asked which they had seen. The answered the yeild sign.

THF inmplies that our memory is generally reliable but highly susceptible to being distorted.
What are 3 basic processes of memory?


What is def of encoding?
converting info in a way which facilitates storage and retrieval. similar to perception in that info must passes thru our filters (biases) as it gets encoded.
Give example of "encoding" and "Stroop" effect.
The automatic process of encoding a highly practiced task like reading. If you were to read a series of words like red, yellow, and blue etc you would do it quickly and swiftly. I the color red were written in blue ink and red were written in yellow ink. You would find it diff to ignore the conflicted meaning of the stimuli and thus would slow down the automatic process of encoding
What are 3 basic memory systems?
Sensory memory

Short term memory (STM)

Long Term Memory (LTM)
What is "sensory memory"?

how long does it last?
Info that comes to us in the form of sensations (light, sound, chemicals etc.)

Sensory memory lasat 2 seconds then it gets passed to STM or escapes us entirely
What is STM?

how long does it last?
Short term memory is whatever we are thinking about at a given moment. We can hold this info for as long as we are willing to continue thinking about it.
What is LTM?

How long does it last?
There is no limit to LTM as long as there is no damage or deterioration to our brain then it is permanent
Why are STM, LTM, and sensory memory called constructs?
B/c it is a concespt and there is no part of the brain that we could "chisel out" and call STM
Descr ex of HM who had his hippocampus and amygdala removed?

Why did he have this procedure
and what were results (anterograde amnesia)
In 1953 he had this procedure to help control his life threatening seizures. After procedure he had anterorgrade (immed following trauma) amnesia and no longer able to recall any new information.
ie He would have to be reintroduced to people every 15 minutes
What is George Millers "chunking" and how much info can we hold in our STM?

When did he develope this?

Give example
In 1950's He says we can hold 7 1/2 bits of info and to circumvent this limitation we use chunking to decrease to smaller bit of info
ie SS #

ie 4-8-6-1-5-6-8-4-6-8 to

Name 2 ways which we forget information?
Interference and

Motivated Forgetting
Name 2 types of "interference" forgetting and describe each.
1 Proactive

2 retroactive
Proactive (activly trying to learn new)interference - When old information interferes with recall of new info
ie cant teach old dog new tricks
ie first language English interferes w learning new language Spanish

2 Retroative (recall of old) interference - recall of old info is diff b/c of learned new stuff.
ie diff remember win 95 b/c use XP now
Describe 2 types of "motivated forgetting"?


Suppression - purposely and consciously try to forget info

Repression - Unconsciously forget information
ie traumatic event
Describe "cue dependent forgetting."
When info we are trying to remember was assoc w cues, we have diff remembering
ie Name of co worker we only remember at work but if we see out of work setting we don't remember name.
Name some guidlines for improving memory?
1 pay attention

2 encode info by attaching meaning (put in your own words)

3 use visual imagery

4 Spread material to learn over as many days as possible

5 overlearn material\

6 Study before bed is best time b/c you dream about material
Descr Mcmartin memory example?

What were names of persons accused (mother and son)?
`1987 in LA. McMartin preschool owned by elderly Peggy and son Bucky. Parent accused McMartins’ of sexual assault of her child. She reported to police and called other parents to let them know of alleged abuse.

Parent suggested to child that abuse occurred. Then many families came forward who said that children had been sexually assaulted anf they both went to jail awaiting trial. Never found any evidence of such abuse
Descr 60 minutes video regarding Rosanne Barr and repressed memory?
claim that her parents sexually abused however her parents and 5 siblings are saying that it never happened. Hey may have done some inappropriate behavior but not sexual
What are ways acc to 60 minutes video to induce repressed memory?
naPentethol, hypnosis