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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are 4 steps to scientific method?
1 theory
2 hypothesis
3 study
4 conclusion
What is theory step of scientific method?

Give an example
Theory (based on some evidence, an organized set of assumptions based on logic, observation, ands or facts that possibly explain a phenomena) Have a theory or idea for which one is interested in determining whether support exist in favor of that theory
i.e. Students are ill a lot end of a semester and end of semester is finals which is very stressful Ω illness caused or is related to by stress.
What is a hypothesis step of scientific method?
A prediction that is specific and which can be put to a test. Articulate a hypothesis based on theory which can be tested.
What does operationally define variable mean in scientific method?

Give an example
Need to operationally define (specified so that they can be measured) variables (anything that varies i.e. height, intelligence, speed etc).
I.e. Stress (variable) can be (operationally) defined as number of credits student is carrying that semester, so that stress is now “measurable”.
I.e. Illness (variable) can be (operationally) defined as # of colds acquired during a semester.
Give example of study step of scientific method?
Conduct the study
I.e. have students report the # of coursed they are enrolled in and keep track of the # of colds they get in a semester
What is conclusion step of scientific method?

Give an example
Make a conclusion about whether the results from our study supported our hypothesis
I.e. Did it turn out that students with more stress (taking more classes) get sicker more often than those who had fewer classes?
What are 4 specific types of investigational methods?
1 correlation
2 experimental
3 survey
4 case study
5 naturalistic observation
What is "Correlational" investigation method?

Give example
Correlation (when 2 or more variables co-vary or are associated with together). So when one variable changes does the other change equally?
I.e. Does reading ability (variable) affect grades in school (variable
Explain "experimentational" investigation method.

Give example
This method is used when the research goal is to determine if one variable causes another variable.
What are independent and dependent variables of experimentation method of investigation?

Give example
(Does this variable cause something)
I.e. salty food

(Is this variable caused by another variable)
I.e. Does salty food (IV) cause thirst (DV)? To operationally define this (eating salty food as eating a 6 oz bag of salted peanuts) and (thirst as number of time a person goes to a nearby fountain to drink water).
What 2 types of participants are in the experimentation method of investigation?
experiment group - Group that receives the experiment or tx being tested

Control Group - Group not given the experiment or tx that is being tested
What is a confound variable?
“confound variable” which may cause a misinterpretation based on their bias.
Why is random assignment important in investigation method?
We “randomly assign” participants (so they don’t know which group they have been assigned) to these groups so they are not biased.
What is double blind study?
A “double blind study” is when the subject and researchers don’t know which group participants belong to (experiment or control) Ω so they are not biased
What is survey method of investigation?
Written or interview questionnaire where people respond series of questions
What are 3 limitations of survey method of investigation?
Limitations are:
a) honesty - may not be truthful if subject is controversial
b) memory distortion/unrealistic self perceptions
c) Manner which a question is presented may skew participants response
What is case study method of investigation?
Study intensely one or a handful of individuals on a case by case basis.
What is limitation of case study method?

Give an example
Can gather a lot of info however the sample group is small
I.e. Freud dev personality theory via case studies Ω does his theory apply to people in general or just people he analyzed
What is naturaistic observation method of investigation?
Can gather a lot of info however the sample group is small
I.e. Freud dev personality theory via case studies Ω does his theory apply to people in general or just people he analyzed
What is limitation of naturalistic observation?
Reactivity when subject is aware they are being observed and deviate from their natural behavior
name 3 types of sampling?
stratified random
non stratified random
What is probability method of sampling
Probability Sampling is simple random sampling which each person in a specific population of interest has an equal chance of being selected to participate.
What is Stratified Random method of sampling?
Stratified random is when selecting percentage of participants = to cultural makeup of population of interest although random
I.e. Population - 75% white and 15% Hispanic and 10% black
What are 2 examples of non probability sampling?
haphazard - take whomever they can find to participate although important group may be delineated

Quota - Similar to stratified random except not randomly selected
What important ethical change was there regarding research?
Since 1992 APA mandates that psychologist are not allowed to conduct research that may harm or traumatize a participant. They also must obtain informed consent from the participant. 8% of research is done on animals if they do any harm to animal they must obtain approval from group of their peers explaining the benefit to be made from the knowledge obtained from the research
What is a confirmation bias?
Refers to our tendency to actively seek out information that confirms our belief and ideals while simultaneously discounting information that challenges or refutes our belief