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15 Cards in this Set

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# types of measurement tests psychologist use to measure human characteristics?
Objective tests

Projective tests

Behavioral assessments
2 qualities to determine if a test is doing a good job.

a Reliability

Expl test/retest reliability and split-half reliability
Reliability/Consitency - Does it measure some characteristic in a consistent manner

test/retest reliability - you should be able to give this test to a person on 2 diff occasions and results should be similar.

Split-half reliability - b/c it is diff to get a group to take same test twice; take a group of peoples tests and split them in half (1st vs 2cd half or odd vs even). Then assign score to to each half for each person so that each person recieves 2 scores and goal is to see if person scored = on 2 tests
2 qualities to determine if a test is doing a good job.

b Validity

What are differences btwn "content validity" and "predictive validity"?
Validity refers to whether a test measures what it is supposed to measure.

IE asking name/food questions on a psych test

Content validity - to see if a test adequatly covers a wide range of content for a given subject

predictive validity - Test which makes predictions about future performance

IE SAT measures success in college
What ae the differences btwn "Aptitude tests"and "Achievement Tests"?
Aptitude Tests - the results will be used to make a prediction about someones future performance

IE SAT, GRE

Achievment Tests - determine if people have mastered the material they have been taught.

IE SAT, FCAT
What are the 2 broad type of personality tests?

1 - Objective
Objctive personality tests - b/c of the way they are scored is objective. The respondant responds w/ T/F or Y/N with no subjective scoring
What are the 2 broad type of personality tests?

2 - Projective
Projective test are test that contain ambiguous stimuli to which a person responds. Theory being is the the subject will project his unresolved issues, fears, and psychological issues onto the stimuli.
The 2 types of objective personality tests are:

1 - Rational Method
Test items are constructed based on theory or present knowledge about the construct

IE if we create a test to assess depression. Then we create T/F test questions such as "my sleeping patterns have changed lately" or "it seems I have no future in life."
The 2 types of objective personality tests are:

1 - Empirical Method
When creating this type of test the initial goal is to create an overabundance of items. Some of which are related to the construct and some aren't. Then have 2 contrasting groups respond to all of the items.

IE In developing a test to measure depression; take 2 contrasting groups those depressed and those who aren't, then rank the items that maximally differentiate the group
An example of an objective personality test is:

MMPI

MMPI2

MMPIA
Minesota Multiphasic Personality Test.

Published in 1943 by 2 psychiatrist Hathaway and McKinley. Goal is to create a pena nd paper test for incoming pts to help psychiatrist determine their diagnosis. (Most of the scale was dev empirically). Provides a wealth of knowledge about a pts psychological status at the time it is taken.

MMPI2 - 1992, new version of test

MMPIA - Adolecent version
What was the main critisism of the validity of the MMPI?

Normals and

Archaic
Problem was that the test was that contrasting groups were psych pts and the "normal" pts were friends and families of psych pts. We now know that psychopathology runs in families.

Say the test was outdated b/c it contains language such as "streetcar" and "sleeping powder"
A type of projective test is:

1 - Rorschach Inkblot test
Rorschach test - consist of ten cards containing symmetrical inkblots. Client is handed the card and asked what might this be? Clinician considers; location, determinants (color, shading, mvmt), contents (human, animal)
On the MMPI there were 10 clinical scales and 4 validity scales

10 clinical (diseases screamed for) scales are:
1 hypochondrias

2 depression

3 hysteria (physiologic illness responds to stress)

4 psychopathic deviate (w little or no conscience)

5 masculine feminine scale (used to measure homosexual or androgenous)

6 paranoia

7 psychasthenia (OCD)

8 schizophrenia

9 hypomania (measures multiple levels of mania)

10 social introversion
On the MMPI there were 10 clinical scales and 4 validity scales:

4 validity scales:
To discover if person was answering truthfully.

1 Cannot say

2 l scale (lying or blatantly lying to portray oneself in a very favorable light)

3 f scale (faking or trying to portray oneself in a negative light)

4 k scale (correctness or trying to prtray oneself in a desirable light in a subtle way)
What is the TAT test?

What is apperception?
In the 1940's Henry Murray develop[ed test in response to theory that humans are motivated to engage in behavior to satisfy psych needs.

Apperception is perception in light of ones previous experience.

TAT test consist of 20 or more cards that are black, white, and gray that show ambiguous px but not as ambiguous as Rorschach
What is the main criticism of projective test?
Projective tests have an unacceptable level of validity relative to objective tests. The interpretation of an individual responses to a projective test may not be meaningful. Diff to discern wether clinicians interpretation of a person response reflect client or clinicians issues.