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40 Cards in this Set

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Define "Personality."
Resonably stable patterns of behavior incl thoughts, feelings that charectorize a persons adaptation to life
Define "traits."
personality charectoristics
Who is the "father of personality."
Sigmund Freud
Where and what year was Freud born.
1856 in Czech Republic
Why did he go into "private practice."
he wanted to be a research scientist but b/c of antisemetism was diff to obtain employment.
How many volumes did Frued write about the human mind?
21
How many languages did he speak
7
What did he die from and what year?
Morphine OD as result of jaw CA in 1939.
What function did Anna play in his life?
His daughter was his nurse and companion and assisted him w lectures and eventually did his lectures when he stopped appearing in puplic b/c of disfigurement from jaw CA
What was Freuds belief about the mind and unconscious mind?
Mind was like an iceberg; 1/3 above water is conscious and 2/3 underwater is unconscious. Humans coulb be more productive and happy if they were to "lower the water line somewhat."

The unconscious has an enormous influence on our behavior and conscious thoughts
Descr diff btwn ID, Ego, and Superego?
ID - completely unconscious and operates on the pleasure principle (if it feels good do it)

Superego - our conscience and develops slowly over years from an internalization of societies moral system (parent, peers, religion etc...)

Ego - operates on "reality principle". Engages in reality testing btwn ID and Superego.
What are defense mechanisms acc to Freud?
When the battle btwn ID and Superego cause Ego to experience anxiety. The ego engages in "defense mechanisms" to save face w itself. They are unconscious
Descr defense mechanism of:

Dsiplacement
When we displace unacceptable feelings (sexual or aggressive) from a threatening object or person to a less threatening object or person.

ie kick the dog, yell at the kids, road rage
Descr defense mechanism of:

Regression
Rare defense mechanism which person manifest behavior fr an earlier stage of development.

IE an adult traumatized by some event curl up in fetal position and cry.
Descr defense mechanism of:

Projection
When we see in others that which we are unwilling to see in ourselves and we project our feelings onto others.

IE Woman accusing other woman of being a slut. may be that the woman has many sexual fantasies herself but sees that behavior in others. Occurs to those who are psychologically immature
Descr defense mechanism of:

Rationalization
When we use distorted logic to justify why we have engages in unacceptable behavior.

IE When somebody buy stolen goods and justifies it by saying "if I didnt buy someone else would have."
Descr defense mechanism of:

Reaction Formation
An exagerated position. If a person has a feeling that violates his belief system, unconsciously that person denies that feeling and overtly adopts an exaggerated position

IE Jerry Falwell/porn example

IE homophobes who get turned on by gay porn
Is "reaction formation" same as hypocrisy?
No b/c hypocrites are aware that their public position is opposite to their true feelings/urges.
Descr defense mechanism of:

Disavowel
When we discount the value of something or someone that we wanted badly b/c of our own inabilities to obtain it.

IE How could I ever have loved that asshole
Descr defense mechanism of:

Sublimation
Freud felt this was a positive defense mechanism.

When we channel unacceptable impulses into healthy productive activities

IE football, sports, exercise, charity
Descr Freuds personality development theory or "psycho sexual stages of development".
Humans pass thru 5 stages of personality development. At each stage a person can encounter some difficulty which can either be manages succesfully or devel some sort of developmental impass.
Descr Freuds personality development theory or "psycho sexual stages of development"

Oral Stage

Descr frustrated vs dependent cpersonality
birth to 1 yo

The mouth is a primary source of pleasure for infants.

Frustrated personality - if weaned too early from breast

Dependent personality - expect others to meet their needs
What is an erogenous zone?
part of the body that is capable of registering sexual stimulation

IE mouth, anus
Descr Freuds personality development theory or "psycho sexual stages of development".

Anal Stage

Descr Anal Retentive vs Expulsive
1 yo to 3 yo

Anus is also an erogenous zone and toddlers are toilet trained at this time.

Anal Retentive - if parents are excessivly demanding and rigid about toilet training mastery. Will possess charectoristics such as stinginess, strong interest in orderliness and cleanliness

Anal Expulsive - Parental lax in toilet training and communicating that mastery of this task is unimportant manifest complete lack of concern for orderliness or cleanliness and lack organization and planmning skill
Descr Freuds personality development theory or "psycho sexual stages of development".

Phallic stage

Castration anxiety/Penis envy

Oedipal/Electra Complex
Age 3 yo to 5 yo

When boys and girls discover there sex organs

Boys have castration anxiety b/c they presume "if it could happen to girls it could happen to them too." Subsequently girls have "penis envy".

When child develops sensual/sexual attachment to their opposite sex parent and view same sex parent as rival.

"Identification" occurs at the end of this stage as a resolution to Oedipal/Electra complex
Descr Freud's personality development theory or "psycho sexual stages of development".

Latency Stage
5 yo to puberty

Period when little happens in terms of developement b/c child is focused on myriad of tasks in school
Descr Freud's personality development theory or "psycho sexual stages of development".

Adult-Genital Stage
Adolescence to adulthood

When person developes a sex role identity and interest in persuing mature heterosexual relationship
Descr Freudian Slip?
When husbands inadvertantly call their wives mom b/c they assoc them with eachother
Descr Freuds "incest taboo"?
Relations with siblings and parents unacceptable in most cultures
What was Anna Freud's biggest contribution to psychology?
Her attempt to apply psychology to children. Her father had resisted this b/c he thought children were not sufficiently verbal to be able to articulate their deep seated conflicts.
Who was karen horney?

What was her position on adult conflicts?

What was her position on unresolved issues w caregivers?
1885-1952

She agreed w most of Freud's theories except for those which reflected a bias against women and that adult conflict stemmed from unresolved sexual conflicts of childhood.

She felt that adult conflict arose fr basic anxiety that children from pervasive dependancy on others and impotence in their relationships with adults.

They will grow up and displace hostilities to others in positions of authority (teachers, govt, supervisors). These people are still fighting with their parents, script.
Who was Alfred Adler?

Descr theory re inferiority complex?

How do humans "cheat death"?
1870-1937

Primary determinant of personality of the drive to overcome inferiority. Inferiority complex stems fr childhood status incl death. We want to overcome our feeling of vulnerability

Having children for legacy, bungee jumping, live as we hope to become (dressing as rock star)
Who was Carl Jung?
1875 to 1961

Mysticism and spirituality.

Friend of Freud until he wanted to modify his theories so their freindship ended.
Who was Harry Stack Sullivan?

Descr theory on "lonliness", "infant nursing", and egocentric?
1892-1949

Provide services to schizophrenics and gay men

Felt lonliness was most powerful human motive people acted to avoid.

Infant nursing was prototype for all future human relationships with significant others.

bad breast > bad mother > bad me

Children are egocentric as they exxagerate their self iomportance and think the world revolves around them.

IE couple divorces child thinks they are responsible
Who were the neo-Freudians?
Anna, Horney, Jung, Adler, and Sullivan
Who were the 2 most prominent "behaviorists"?

What was their collective theory on personality developement and SR machines?

What was their position on study of "mental events" like dream, emotions etc?
John B. Watson and BF Skinner

Personality is cumulative product of our hx of reinforcement and punishment. Felt we are SR machines

Even if there were such things as mental events nothing could be gained by studying them.
Who was behaviorist John B Watson?

Descr Little Albert experiment and implications?
brought modern psychology to US. Started the APA.

Applied Pavlovs classical conditioning to humans
What was John b Watsons hx regarding research jobs.

What was his position on child rearing?
Was youngest to graduate fr U of Chicago w PHD. Job w JHU ended b/c of an affair he was having w his research assistant. Then went on to persue apply knowledge regarding classical conditioning to advertising firm.

Parents should not provide children with too much affection for fear of over indulging them. One son committed suicide (hated father) while other became analyst
Who was BF Skinner?
Professer at harvard until his death in 1989.

Believed all organisms can be controlled if appropraite reinforcements are in place. Critisized "Shame of American Education System" b/c it punishes bad behavior instead of rewarding good behavior and good academic performance.
Who were the 3 men who formed the "humanist" movement?
Rollo May, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow