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19 Cards in this Set

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Anorexia definition
15% decrease in body weight
active pursuit of thinness, fear of fat
disturbance in body shape/size perception
amenorrhea (absense of mentral cycle for 3 mos)
Associated features (pride in self control, baldness, menugo, secrecy of eating)
Anorexia subtypes
Restricting: absense of food intake; weight loss thru strict dieting, no binge/purge
Binge-eating/purging: still maintains weight loss thru diet and purging after binges
Problems/ prevalence
5% mortality rate (higher than any other mental disorder)
Cardiovascular problems, anemia, renal system (kidney, bladder)impairments, osteoporosis, irreversible shortness
onset @ 2 peaks: 14 and 18
Ethnicity/comorbidity
More prevalent in mid-upper class (but may be confounded)
Found in all races/ethnicities
More in industrialized nations( western ideals)
Comorbid w/ depression (73%), anxiety (esp. OCD, social phobia), personality disorders
Biological context
Neurochem: serotonin imbalence preceds anorexic beh
self-starvation reduces serotonin over-activity
(abnormalities often consequences not causes)
Individual context
Body image: puberty girls gain 24 lbs...distressing/ media's emphasis on thin.lead to preoccupation w/ body change
Teased by classmates if early puberty
Cyclical: body dissatisfaction-> food restriction-> preoccupation w/ food->diet,control-> anxiety
Borderline somatic delusions
-grossly inaccurate perceptions, based on emotional conflict
-less ability to identify internal body states
Personality characteristics
Low self-esteem: eager to please
Perfectionism: overacheivers
restricting- more social phobia, insecure, rigid
binge/purgers-more extroverted/social, but more emotionally dysregulated
Cognitions
excessive need for control
Ego-syntonic: consistent w/ self-image, 'like being in control', pride; weight loss= great achievement, weight gain=sign of weakness, failure, low motivation to change
Family Context
Family Systems theory: 4 characteristic patterns- enmeshment, overprotectiveness, rigidity (avoids change), lack of conflict resolution.
Child's autonomy undermined, refusal to eat=covert rebellion, illness allows dependecne on parents
Social context
Excessive shyness
Sexuality: most avoid sex,neg. evaluation of sex, lack of interest.
hit puberty early->sexually active sooner, sexualized by society sooner: not ready. withdraw from it
Cultural Context
Body ideals: gotten thinner over time
Sex-role stereotypes: female physical attractiveness is central (males more successful)
Websites: pro-ana, etc
Bulimia Nervosa definition
Recurrent episodes of binge eating; rapid consumption of large amounts of food, consume to point of pain
Purging-self induced vomitting, laxatives, etc
Nonpurging-excessive exercise
Usually average weight
Caught b/w anticipated loss of control of eating and feelings of shame/guilt
Problems
Electrolyte/fluid imbalence, weakness,lethargy, kidney problems, irregular heartbeat, sudden death
Vomiting: damage to stomach and esphogus, tooth decay, broken blood vessels in face, enlarge salivary glands
Prevalence
1-4% female ad., about 18 yrs
85-90% female
More in high SES, caucasian, highly industrialized
Biological
genetics: runs in family
Neurochem: noraperephrine and serotonin system problems
low serotonin (consequence of cause?)
Individual
Black and white thinking: completely in control or not (disgust)
Emotion regulation-internalizing feeling, perfectionism
before binge:anger, guilt, low adequacy
during binge:anger, disgust
after binge: depression, disgust
after purge: satissfaction, feeling clean
Social
Peer influence, more extroverted, more sexually active but less enjoyment
Family
parent psychopathology more prominent
Hostiley enmeshed
Overly critical of weight
Treatment
-Pharmacology: antidepressant (little effect on eating beh)
-Psychodynamic therapy: poor ego, self esteem,etc
-Beh Modification: operant conditioning(change eating beh but not other feelings)
-cognitive therapy (successful)
-Family therapy: lunch session, observe interactions