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32 Cards in this Set

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Observations of blind and deaf girl show appropriate facial expressions
Goodenough
No difference in facial expressions between blind and sighted
Galati, Scherer, & Ricci-Bitti
Western cultures agree 70% overall on what facial expressions are
Eckman & Friesen
Foreign kids are better at telling facial expressions of Westerners than adults, but agree with adults overall
Ekman Fore Research 1
Foreigners had to match photo of emotion to a story
Ekman Fore Research 2
Development of facial expressions in children to determine innate emotions
Izard
Used photographs and electrical stimulation of facial muscles to measure expression
Duchenne
When people believe their lie, they have less emotion, and thus the lie is less possible to detect. When they don’t, the lie arouses emotion.
Eckman
American students do not disguise feelings while watching movies with others, but Japanese students mask emotions with a smile
Eckman, Friesen, & Ellsworth
Americans think it’s more OK to express negative emotions to in-group members, Japanese think it’s more OK to express negative emotions to out-group members
Matsumoto
Men or women don’t report more emotion, but women are more expressive
Kring & Gordon
Girls are better at masking disappointment than boys, although boys get better when motivated by competition
Davis
Subjects playing video games hid triumph while with others, didn’t while alone. People better at self-monitoring are better at hiding expressions.
Friedeman & Miller-Herringer
Women are better at men than recognizing facial expressions, males high on self-monitoring better than men low on self-monitoring
Mufson & Nowiki
Injections of adrenaline cause either anxiety/sadness or feeling of nonspecific emotion
Maranon
After spinal cord injury, physiological experience of emotion lowered, but subjective experience is not (counters James)
Bermond
People who are wheelchair-bound are no different in emotion intensity than those who have spinal cord injuries. Intensities of fear and love higher after spinal cord injury, and intensity of anger and other emotions correlated with lesion location.
Chwalisz et al
Thoughts about event steer a non-specific arousal to differentiate emotions (effects of adrenaline and meeting confederate in waiting room on emotions)
Schachter & Singer
Differentiated fear and anger with real-life induction
Ax
Told subjects to move facial muscles to make 6 basic emotional faces, looked at differences in SNS arousal
Levenson
Induced fear and anger in real-life and imagination conditions. Differences between these conditions, but emotion-specific profiles emerged
Stemmlet
Two types of batterers
Gottman
Remembering experiences helps actors express emotions
Stanislavski
Suppressing facial expression in response to pain helps lower pain level, while amplifying facial expression raises pain level (supports modulation hypothesis)
Lanzetta
Induced faces while watching film, failed to replicate Laird’s findings that expression determines emotion
Tourango & Ellsworth
Cartoon funnier when smile induced by holding pen in mouth
Strack, Martin, & Strepper
Posed basic emotions to support initiation hypothesis of facial feedback
Ekman, Levenson, & Friesen
Found ANS changes when smile induced with pen in mouth
Boiten
Facial movements are part of the emotion system that activate other components
McIntosh
Smiling causes blood surges which creates brain activity to cause happiness
Zanjonc
Smile more when bowling when facing those watching than when facing pins (expression is always for communication)
Fridlund 1
Observer could only guess taste of food when taster was in front of others (expression is always for communication)
Fridlund 2