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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sources of evidence that expressions evolved to communicate emotion
1. human face far more expressive than primate face
2.nonhuman primates vary in expressiveness depending on how visible their faces are to conspecifics
3. influenced by social cues
problem with universality hypothesis
basic emotions should be similarly expressed and identified regardless of

-whether holding positive or negative emotions
-whether others are present
-context where emotion is judged
-should be able to make highly recognizable expressions
William James
'feeling' is emotion
common sense theory
1. stimulus
2. perception
3. emotion
4. bodily arousal
JJames Theory
1. stimulus
2. perception
3. bodily arousal
4. emotion
assumptions of james' arousal theory
-emotional feelings result when individual becomes aware of physical response to emotion-provoking stimulus
-requires separate and distinct physical activity for each emotion
3 types of bodily changes
1.expressive behavior (facial expressions, laughing, smiling, posture, tears)

2.instrumental behavior (activity level, screaming, aggression, approach/avoidance, fleeing)

3. physiological changes (blood pressure, heart rate, adrenaline levels, perspiration, temp)
cannon's criticisms
-time course is wrong: sympathetic nervous system responding too slowly and shuts off too slowly

-sympathetic nervous system too undifferentiated

-experience of emotion starts before autonomic changes

-emotion and body responses not causally related
cannon bards theory

then arousal and emotion simultaneously
reasons James-Lange wrong according to cannon
1. total separation of viscera from central nervous system doesnt alter emotional behavior

2. similar visceral changes occur in very different emotional states (even nonemotional states)

3. viscera are relatively insensitive structures

4. visceral changes too slow to be source of emotional experience

5. artificial induction of visceral changes doesnt produce emotions
scared participants to think will be shocked to death to induce fear

polygraph operator verbally abusive to participants to induce anger

physiological signatures were different on 7 of 14 measurements

fear and anger clearly differentiated
Facial Feedback hypothesis

facial expression triggers both physiological arousal and conscious feeling associated with emotion

can use emotional expression to self-regulate emotions
spinal cord injuries

reduced experience of emotions in quadriplegics over paraplegics

preservation of emotions involving face over body involving emotions
Evidence against James lange
Bell's palsy and Mobius syndrome
(feedback not necessary/sufficient to explain emotion)

paralyzed face muscles but no change in emotion intensity or emotion recognition

even if taken away, can still imagine/feel emotion