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247 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A gene is recessive when:
its influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene.
The third period of gestation is the
fetal period.
Which of the following is a characteristic of children born with Klinefelter syndrome?
They may develop normally until puberty.
Most traits are polygenic, meaning that they are:
produced by many genes.
The age of viability refers to the point when the preterm newborn:
The age of viability refers to the point when the preterm newborn:
What percentage of embryos are aborted spontaneously?
20 percent
Differentiation refers to the process by which:
zygotic cells specialize depending on where they are located.
Phenotype refers to:
the actual expression of genetic traits.
Chromosomal abnormalities occur when a zygote's cells have:
more or fewer than the usual 46 chromosomes.
The germinal period ends approximately:
two weeks after conception.
Cognitive theories emphasize the:
development of thought processes and their effect on behavior, attitudes, and beliefs.
The science of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand:
how and why people change across the life span.
A crucial element of the science of human development is the:
focus on all kinds of people, young and old.
To study how members of a particular group change or remain the same as they grow older, the best method is:
longitudinal research.
A cross-sequential design:
follows two or more groups of people who are of different ages over a period of time.
The first step in the scientific method involves:
posing a question.
If you find a correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that:
high attendance and high grades tend to occur together.
Cohort refers to a group of people who:
are born within a few years of one another.
Unlike Freud, Erikson's psychosocial theory emphasizes:
the social and cultural environment.
What are the three domains of human development described in the text?
biosocial, cognitive, psychosocial
Most traits are polygenic, meaning that they are:
produced by many genes.
Chromosomal abnormalities occur when a zygote's cells have:
more or fewer than the usual 46 chromosomes.
Color blindness is more common among males because:
most color blindness is inherited through a recessive gene on the X chromosome.
Phenotype refers to:
the actual expression of genetic traits.
In genetic terms, if you are a “carrier” it means you have:
recessive genes in your genotype that are not expressed.
The third period of gestation is the:
fetal period.
The first organ system that shows any sign of activity is the:
cardiovascular system.
The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar are:
heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes.
Babies born between ______ before and ______ after the assigned due date are considered to be on time.
three weeks; two weeks
What percentage of embryos are aborted spontaneously?
20 percent
A reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because:
many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers.
To study how members of a particular group change or remain the same as they grow older, the best method is:
longitudinal research.
A cross-sequential design:
follows two or more groups of people who are of different ages over a period of time.
In operant conditioning, an organism learns that:
a particular behavior usually produces a particular consequence.
According to Erikson, an infant must resolve the crisis of:
trust vs. mistrust.
When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, two-day-old Leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior?
Mirror neurons were activated.
A manner of studying human development that takes into account all phases of life is referred to as the:
life-span perspective.
Becky wants to study stealing in school-age children. She asked to review surveillance videos from three stores that were focused on the candy aisle. Her method of study is:
scientific observation.
Low birthweight is defined internationally as a body weight of less than:
5½ pounds.
What is unique about stem cells?
They have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell.
Low-birthweight babies are more likely to become adults who are:
overweight.
Sperm and ova are called:
gametes.
A gene is recessive when:
its influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene.
In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ______ group.
experimental
What is a “critical period” of development?
when certain things must occur for normal development
In order, Freud's first three stages of development are:
oral, anal, phallic.
Becky wants to study stealing in school-age children. She asked to review surveillance videos from three stores that were focused on the candy aisle. Her method of study is:
scientific observation.
Unlike Freud, Erikson's psychosocial theory emphasizes:
the social and cultural environment.
Behaviorism focuses on which of the following?
observable behavior
A crucial element of the science of human development is the:
focus on all kinds of people, young and old.
External sex organs are fully formed by the:
twelfth week after conception.
The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar are:
heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes.
Piaget's theory of development focused primarily on:
how our thinking changes as we grow older.
Experiments allow researchers to:
determine a cause-and-effect relationship.
A type of day care in which several paid providers care for many children in a space designed especially for the purpose of day care is called:
center day care.
The first crisis of life, according to Erikson, is:
trust vs. mistrust.
If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has some:
self-awareness.
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
social referencing.
A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:
eats excessively.
Which of the following is a sign of secure attachment?
a child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver
Distal parenting tends to produce children who are:
self-aware.
According to psychoanalytic theory, the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy is:
the mouth.
According to Freud, the stage that takes place in the second year is called:
the anal stage.
Tiffany is now 8 months old. Her mother has always been a very anxious person, as has her father. Tiffany's parents and siblings are all easily stressed and anxious. What effect might this environment have on Tiffany's brain development?
Her hypothalamus may grow more slowly than normal.
Approximately how many hours per day do newborns spend sleeping?
17+ hours
The sense that is the least developed at birth is:
vision
Brain cells are called:
neurons
On average, children begin saying recognizable words at about:
12 months of age.
Children reach half their adult height by age:
2 years.
By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B. F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development mainly to his:
parents' talking to him frequently.
When infants turn their heads and suck in response to a touch on the cheek, they are demonstrating the:
rooting reflex.
Newborns prefer: (when it comes to sound)
speech over most other sounds.
Salma is a 10-month-old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her to:
refuse to cross over the visual cliff.
Breast milk:
provides antibodies to fight diseases.
At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to be:
a social smile.
A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:
eats excessively.
Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:
compliant.
According to traditional behaviorism, personality is:
molded by parents.
A lasting emotional bond that an infant forms with a caregiver defines:
attachment.
How do people become “fixated” in a Freudian stage?
Their normal developmental urges are frustrated.
The first crisis of life, according to Erikson, is:
trust vs. mistrust.
The autonomy versus shame and doubt crisis involves the child's:
trying to control his or her own actions.
When playing with their children, fathers are more likely than mothers to:
engage in physical play.
When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:
separation anxiety.
Brain cells are called:
neurons.
Breast milk:
provides antibodies to fight diseases.
The last part of the brain to mature is the:
prefrontal cortex.
The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature is the:
prefrontal cortex.
The average newborn doubles her birthweight by:
four months.
According to Chomsky's theory of language acquisition:
children have an inborn ability to learn language.
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
use senses and motor skills to understand the world.
Hugh enjoys playing with your keys. When you take them away and place them in your pocket, Hugh does not search for them. Piaget would say that Hugh does not understand:
object permanence.
Approximately how many hours per day do newborns spend sleeping?
17+ hours
The new emotions that appear toward the end of the second year are:
pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt.
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
social referencing.
Which of the following is a sign of secure attachment?
a child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver
Which of the following is characteristic of the emotions that develop over the course of the first 2 years of life?
They are spontaneous and uncensored.
Salma is a 10-month-old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her to:
refuse to cross over the visual cliff.
The last part of the brain to mature is the:
prefrontal cortex.
When infants turn their heads and suck in response to a touch on the cheek, they are demonstrating the:
rooting reflex.
Breast milk:
provides antibodies to fight diseases.
Hugh enjoys playing with your keys. When you take them away and place them in your pocket, Hugh does not search for them. Piaget would say that Hugh does not understand:
object permanence.
According to Chomsky's theory of language acquisition:
children have an inborn ability to learn language.
The average child can walk well independently at about:
1 year.
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
use senses and motor skills to understand the world.
Tiffany is now 8 months old. Her mother has always been a very anxious person, as has her father. Tiffany's parents and siblings are all easily stressed and anxious. What effect might this environment have on Tiffany's brain development?
Her hypothalamus may grow more slowly than normal.
A lasting emotional bond that an infant forms with a caregiver defines:
attachment.
The autonomy versus shame and doubt crisis involves the child's:
trying to control his or her own actions.
Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:
compliant.
At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to be:
a wide-eyed look of surprise.
A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:
eats excessively.
Which of the following is characteristic of the emotions that develop over the course of the first 2 years of life?
They are spontaneous and uncensored.
The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature is the:
prefrontal cortex.
By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B. F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development mainly to his:
parents' talking to him frequently.
The last part of the brain to mature is the:
prefrontal cortex.
According to Chomsky's theory of language acquisition:
children have an inborn ability to learn language.
The sense that is the least developed at birth is:
vision.
The average child can walk well independently at about:
1 year.
When infants turn their heads and suck in response to a touch on the cheek, they are demonstrating the:
rooting reflex.
On average, children begin saying recognizable words at about:
12 months of age.
When a young child asks “why?” what kind of information are they most likely seeking?
They want to know how the situation or behavior affects them.
The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that processes:
memory.
Armando started preschool at age 3. His teacher observed that he is small for his age, underweight, and delayed in language development. His parents are unconcerned, declaring that it's just “his way.” However, the teacher may likely suspect:
maltreatment.
The amygdala is a brain structure that registers:
emotions
Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, “Naughty table!” This is an example of which of the following?
animism
Between the ages of 2 and 6, a well-nourished child will gain about ______ pounds and grow about ______ inches per year.
4½; 3
According to Vygotsky, language is a tool:
to advance thought.
Which of the following would be the most likely cause of death in a preschooler?
jumping into a swimming pool and drowning
According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:
interact with a mentor to accomplish a task.
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
mastery of gross and fine motor skills
Angelica is 3 years old and says frequently that she wants to “marry daddy.” According to psychoanalytic theory, this is a manifestation of:
the Electra complex.
In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called:
the Oedipus complex.
Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums that lasted much longer than those of his classmates in his kindergarten class. How might his behavior be explained?
Early stress may have affected his ability to regulate his emotions.
Which of the following is an example of reactive aggression?
Joanie hits Beth because Beth bumped into her during a game of catch.
Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, “Naughty table!” This is an example of which of the following?
animism
Between the ages of 2 and 6, a well-nourished child will gain about ______ pounds and grow about ______ inches per year.
4½; 3
According to Vygotsky, language is a tool:
to advance thought.
Which of the following would be the most likely cause of death in a preschooler?
jumping into a swimming pool and drowning
According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:
interact with a mentor to accomplish a task.
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
mastery of gross and fine motor skills
Angelica is 3 years old and says frequently that she wants to “marry daddy.” According to psychoanalytic theory, this is a manifestation of:
the Electra complex.
In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called:
the Oedipus complex.
Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums that lasted much longer than those of his classmates in his kindergarten class. How might his behavior be explained?
Early stress may have affected his ability to regulate his emotions.
Which of the following is an example of reactive aggression?
Joanie hits Beth because Beth bumped into her during a game of catch.
Research on spanking suggests that it is quick and efficient at age 2 or 3, and that:
it may have negative repercussions later.
Freud would say that a typical 5-year-old is in the:
phallic stage.
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age is called:
initiative versus guilt.
The preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between the ages of 2 and 6 is:
learning when and how to express emotions.
Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely, as he grows older:
he will become aggressive himself.
Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the:
authoritative pattern of parenting.
A critical-period view of language learning refers to:
the only time language can be learned.
The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience:
frightening nightmares.
Jodee, age 5, insists on having all of the different foods on her plate separated. If the vegetables touch the meat, for example, she insists on a clean plate. Jodee's parents are concerned about this behavior. What advice would you offer them?
Allow Jodee to grow out of this “just-right” obsession.
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
mastery of gross and fine motor skills
According to Vygotsky, language is a tool:
to advance thought.
Which of the following would be the most likely cause of death in a preschooler?
jumping into a swimming pool and drowning
According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:
interact with a mentor to accomplish a task.
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
mastery of gross and fine motor skills
Angelica is 3 years old and says frequently that she wants to “marry daddy.” According to psychoanalytic theory, this is a manifestation of:
In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called:
Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums that lasted much longer than those of his classmates in his kindergarten class. How might his behavior be explained?
Early stress may have affected his ability to regulate his emotions.
In Freudian theory, when a little boy develops sexual feelings toward his mother and becomes jealous of his father, this is called:
the Oedipus complex.
Which of the following is an example of reactive aggression?
Joanie hits Beth because Beth bumped into her during a game of catch.
Freud would say that a typical 5-year-old is in the:
phallic stage.
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age is called:
initiative versus guilt.
The preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between the ages of 2 and 6 is:
learning when and how to express emotions.
Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely, as he grows older:
he will become aggressive himself.
Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the:
authoritative pattern of parenting.
The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience:
frightening nightmares.
Jodee, age 5, insists on having all of the different foods on her plate separated. If the vegetables touch the meat, for example, she insists on a clean plate. Jodee's parents are concerned about this behavior. What advice would you offer them?
Allow Jodee to grow out of this “just-right” obsession.
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
mastery of gross and fine motor skills
To focus on one aspect of a situation and simultaneously exclude all others is called:
centration
An example of a gross motor skill is:
waving good-bye.
According to Vygotsky, the internal dialogue that we have with ourselves either silently or out loud is referred to as:
private speech.
Romy understands that if she has 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say that Romy:
has demonstrated irreversible thinking.
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age is called:
initiative versus guilt.
According to your text, ______ differences are biological and ______ differences are culturally prescribed.
sex; gender
The preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between the ages of 2 and 6 is:
learning when and how to express emotions.
To successfully resolve the Oedipus complex, the child must:
strive to be like the father, in behavior and attitude.
Jarred, age 5, describes himself as a good soccer player with black hair who laughs a lot. His description demonstrates his developing:
self-concept.
An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed:
emotional regulation.
Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who are:
permissive.
Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. They are demonstrating:
relational aggression.
A good example of a fine motor skill is:
using scissors to cut paper.
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
mastery of gross and fine motor skills
“I catched two mices in a trap” is an example of:
overregularization.
The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience:
frightening nightmares.
According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:
interact with a mentor to accomplish a task.
Because of fast-mapping, a preschooler:
learns some words after a single exposure to them.
The preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between the ages of 2 and 6 is:
learning when and how to express emotions.
A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is:
authoritarian.
The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the:
prefrontal cortex.
Jose is very warm and nurturing of his children. He loves them very much and does not believe in punishment of any sort. Which type of parent is Jose?
permissive
Excessive guilt, shame, or sense of worthlessness constitutes which of the following?
internalizing problems
One of Vygotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:
children can master some tasks with the help of others.
Jake's father is taking him to the barber for his first real haircut. At first, Jake is excited about his first trip to the barber, but as soon as the barber makes the first cut in his hair, he becomes very upset and tells his father to make the barber stop. In spite of his father's efforts to assure Jake that his hair will grow back, Jake is exhibiting the concept of:
irreversibility.
Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be happy with Juan's father?
Vygotsky
“I catched two mices in a trap” is an example of:
overregularization.
An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed:
emotional regulation.
Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums that lasted much longer than those of his classmates in his kindergarten class. How might his behavior be explained?
Early stress may have affected his ability to regulate his emotions.
Excessive guilt, shame, or sense of worthlessness constitutes which of the following?
internalizing problems
Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who are:
permissive.
Freud would say that a typical 5-year-old is in the:
phallic stage.
Jarred, age 5, describes himself as a good soccer player with black hair who laughs a lot. His description demonstrates his developing:
self-concept.
Sara has an IQ of 90, and Chuck's IQ is 114. Sara would be classified as ______ and Chuck as ______.
Sara has an IQ of 90, and Chuck's IQ is 114. Sara would be classified as ______ and Chuck as ______.
The information-processing theory likens many aspects of human thinking to the organization and functioning of:
computers.
The average 7 to 11-year-old gains about ______ inches per year.
2
The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called:
automatization
Developmental psychopathology has given us the following lesson applicable to all children:
Abnormality is normal.
Achievement tests are designed to measure:
how much has been learned.
Which of the following is a contributor to the decline in neighborhood play among children?
“stranger danger”
Frequently, school-age children on a baseball field will shout, “Think fast!” and immediately throw a baseball in the direction of a teammate. What is being tested is the teammate's:
reaction time.
The average 7 to 11-year-old gains about ______ pounds per year.
5
Joshua and Tiffany have both been diagnosed with ADHD. Who is more likely to be prescribed medication for the condition?
Joshua
Which of the following factors have the greatest influence on whether or not children thrive in a blended family?
the SES and emotional security of the parents
Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all part of Barbara's developing a healthy sense of:
industry
A common characteristic of bullies is that they:
lack empathy.
Kohlberg measured morality by:
analyzing how people reason about what is right and wrong.
When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of:
social cognition.
Which of the following children is most likely to have a healthy sense of self-esteem?
Chang, who appreciates himself and other children equally
Of the following children, who is at greatest risk in terms of school performance and success as an adult?
Richard, who is being raised by his single mom
Parents' beliefs that they mold their children's personalities may be diminished by the finding that:
most of the environmental effects on personality may be from the “nonshared” environment.
According to Freud, which of the following will 8-year-old Sven experience?
repression of his psychosexual needs
When one assesses one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers, one is engaging in:
social comparison.
The IQ test specifically designed for school-age children is the:
WISC.
Which of the following types of prevention tends to be the most difficult because it involves large-scale societal changes?
primary
Developmental psychopathology has given us the following lesson applicable to all children:
Abnormality is normal.
By the end of middle childhood, the capacity of long-term memory is:
virtually limitless.
In the school years, Piaget believed that children are in the period of:
concrete operational thought.
The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called:
automatization.
Ten-year-old Mary caught Anne, her best friend, lying to her own mom. Mary will probably:
keep quiet about it.
Parents' beliefs that they mold their children's personalities may be diminished by the finding that:
most of the environmental effects on personality may be from the “nonshared” environment.
Because John's mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, John is often neglected. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping him keep his positive attitude?
his circle of friends and their activities
Over time, the consequences of bullying:
may lead to problems with relationships for the bullies and their victims.
Family structure refers to:
legal and genetic relationships of family members.
When one assesses one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers, one is engaging in:
social comparison.
The ability to concentrate on certain specific stimuli while ignoring others is called:
selective attention.
Increased cognitive flexibility, linguistic ability, and social awareness make it possible for school-age children to:
understand jokes and metaphors.
The IQ test specifically designed for school-age children is the:
WISC
In early childhood, autistic children have difficulty:
with communication.
David is excitable, impulsive, and very active in addition to having difficulty concentrating. He might have:
ADHD.
Most likely, autism is caused by:
genetic vulnerability coupled with other factors.
In the school years, Piaget believed that children are in the period of:
concrete operational thought.
According to Freud, which of the following will 8-year-old Sven experience?
repression of his psychosexual needs
When one assesses one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers, one is engaging in:
social comparison.
Which of the following best explains why children who come from violent homes have few close friends and are lonely?
The children don't learn the skills necessary to sustain close relationships.
Kohlberg's theory has been criticized because:
the theory is seen as not taking into account cultural differences.
A major coping measure that helps children and families deal with problems and stress is:
social support.