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304 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does the endocrine system secrete?
Hormones are carried through bloodstream to tissue.
What do Hormones influence?
Sex, food and aggression
What are hormones?
Chemical messengers manufactured by endocrine glands, produced in one tissue and affect another.
What happens in a moment of danger?
Nervous system orders adrenal glands to release adrenaline and noradrenaline
What do the adrenaline and noradrenaline hormaones do?
Increase heart rate, blood pressure and blood sugar
What is the most influential endocrine gland?
The pituitary gland. Located at the base of the brain.
What controls the pituitary gland?
The hypothalamus.
What does the pitautiary gland do?
Releases hormones that influence growth.
What is the feedback system?
Brain -> pituitary -> other glands -> hormones -> brain.
Everything psychological is simultaneously biological
What are chromosomes?
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes. They consist of 23 from father and 23 from mother. 46 in total.
What is the molecule DNA?
Complex molecule containing genetic information that makes up chromosomes.
How many strands does a DNA molecule have?
Two strands – forming a double helix, which is held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides.
What are genes?
Small segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
How many genes do we have?
What are proteins?
Building blocks of our physical development
What are nucleotides?
Four letter alphabets A, T, C and G that make up genes.
What are human traits influenced by?
Gene complexes – groups of genes acting in concert.
What are genetic differences between groups and within groups?
Individual variation within race and group is much greater than average difference between race and groups.
What is mutation?
Random error in gene replication that leads to a change in sequence of nucleotides.
What is natural selection?
Inherited trait variations that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
What is evolutionary psychology?
Study of evolution of behaviour and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
What is the definition of gender?
The characteristics, by which people define male and female. Whether biological or socially influenced.
What are the genetic differences between and among groups?
6% are between races.
8% are differences between groups within a race
Over 85% are individual differences among groups within a race.
What type of women are men attracted to?
Waists roughly a third narrower than their hips.
What type of men are women attracted to?
Mature, dominant, bold and affluent.
What are some criticisms of the evolutionary explanation?
• Cultural expectations blend genders
• What’s attractive varies from time and place.
• Gender differences maybe product of culture’s social and family structures.
• Genetic determinism.
What do behaviour geneticists study?
Both genetic blueprint and the influence of the environment.
What studies do they normally use?
Twin studies and Adoption Studies
What are identical twins?
Twins who develop from a single egg that splits into two. They are genetically identical. Same sex only.
What are fraternal twins?
Twins that develop from separate eggs. Same or opposite sex.
Are identical twins more similar than fraternal twins?
Yes, they are more similar in abilities, personality traits and interests. This is largely genetic influence instead of environmental influence.
What is behavior genetics?
The study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behaviour
What is environment?
Every non genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
What are some of the characteristics of separated twins?
• Separated twins are more alike when they are identical twins than fraternal twins.
• Separation shortly after birth didn’t amplify their personality differences.
Do parental perceptions matter to the similarity of raised twins?
What is the conclusion of adoption studies?
People who grow up together, whether biologically related or not, do not resemble one another in personality.
Does the adoptee bear more similar traits to birth or foster parents?
However adoptee traits bear more similarities to their birth parents than foster parents.
What is the environment’s impact on personality development?
Environmental factors shared by a family’s children have virtually no impact on their personality.

However a pair of adopted children or identical twins will have more similar religious beliefs if reared in the same house.

Adopted children score higher than their biological parents on IQ tests.
What is the definition of temperament?
A person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Do early temperamental signs correspond to later behaviour?
Yes. Emotional reactive newborns become reactive 9 month olds
Identical twins have more similar temperament.
Define Heritability
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depends on the range of populations and environments studied.
What does heritability measure?
It measures the extent to which differences among people are attributed to genes.
What is the effect of environment on heritability?
When environments becomre more similar, heredity as a source of difference becomes more important.
What happens to heritability when the environment is similar?
It increases as the environment becomes more uniform.
Does heritability imply group differences?
No. individual group differences do not imply heritable group differences. putting people in new social contexts can influence behavior.
What is the definition of interaction?
The dependence of the effect of one factor (such as the environment) on another factor (such as heredity).
How do twins experience parent’s warmth?
Identical twins experience warmth as remarkably similar even when raised in different families. Fraternal twins experience early family life more differently.
What is the definition of molecular genetics?
The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
What does molecular genetics do?
Identify specific genes that influence behavior or causes defects.
What are the three major issues of developmental psychology?
Nature/nurture, Continuity/Stages and Stability/Change.
What is the definition of developmental psychology?
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
What are zygotes?
Fertilized eggs. Fewer than half of all zygotes will survive beyond the first 2 weeks. It enters a 2 week period of period cell division and develops into an embryo.
When does prenatal development begin?
10 days after conception, when the zygote attaches itself to the uterine wall and thus forms the placenta. The placenta draws nourishment from the mother.
What is an embryo?
The developing human organism from 2 weeks after fertilization to the second month. It forms from the inner cells of the zygote.
When can a premature fetus survive on its own?
By the end of the 6th month when organs such as stomach are formed and functional. The fetus at this stage can listen to sound.
What are teratogens?
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
When are fetuses responsive to sound?
By the end of the sixth month.
What is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)?
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant women’s heavy drinking. Mental retardation or facial misproportions.
How does smoking affect the fetal brain?
increased violent rates among men whose mothers smoked heavily during pregnancy.
What is the rooting reflex?
Usage of the mouth to root for a nipple
What can a baby see, hear and think?
They prefer human voices, human images and see at distance of 8 to 12 inches. Prefer mama’s smell. Infants focus first on face and not body.
Can infants remember visual stimuli?
Infants can remember and discriminate between differing visual stimuli
What is habituation?
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. When infants are familiar with some object, they will look away sooner.
How does the infant brain develop?
Neurons peak at 28 weeks and stabilizes at birth.
How do neural networks develop?
From neural networks (which allow one to walk, talk etc.) develop mostly in the frontal lobe during ages 3 to 6.
What is maturation?
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behaviour, relatively uninfluenced by experience. Sets the basic course of development.
What are the characteristics of infant memory?
Earliest memories come after the third birthday. Cannot remember anything before that because lack of neural connections.
What is the average age of conscious memory?
3.5 years. However before this age, the unconscious mind or nervous system remembers events. However this cannot be expressed.
When do infants first start to walk?
Usually by first birthday. Identical twins sit up and walk nearly on the same day.
What is the definition of schema?
A concept or framework that organizes that interprets information.
What is assimilation
Interpretating one’s new experience in terms of existing schemas.
What is accommodation?
Adapting one’s current schema to add in new information.
What is the sensorimotor stage?
From birth to age 2. Babies experience the world primarily through their senses. They are incapable of understanding concept or ideas.
What is object permanence?
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
What does object permanence develop?
8 mths. Before that, for infants, out of sight is out of mind.
What is stranger anxiety?
Fear of strangers.. begins at around 8 mths of age.
What are some criticisms of the sensori motor stage?
• Object permanence develops gradually.
• Babies have intuitive sense of logic
What is the preoperational stage?
The stage (from 2 - 6 or 7 years old) when a child learns to use language but is incapable of concrete logic.
What are some of the key characteristics of the preoperational stage?
• Egocentrism
• Theory of mind
• Autism
• Lacks the concept of conservation
What is egocentrism?
The inability to take another’s point of view
What is theory of mind?
Ideas about one’s own and other’s mental states, feelings, perceptions and possible behaviour.
What is autism?
Disorder marked by lack of communication, social interaction and understanding of other’s states of mind.
What is concrete operational stage?
The stage of cognitive development from 6 or 7 to 11 years old. Children gain mental operations to think logically about concrete events.
They are able to grasp conservation.
They can grapsh mathematical transformations.
What is the principle of conservation?
The principle that mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in shape or form of the object.
What is the formal operational stage?
The stage of cognitive development from age 12 onwards. Children are able to think logically about abstract concepts.
Includes hypothetical propositions and deducing consequences
Systematic reasoning
What are some of the criticisms about Piaget’s theory?
• Development is more continuous
• Formal logic as a smaller part of cognition that Piaget believed.
What are the implications of Piaget’s theory?
Children construct their understandings from their interactions with the world.
Accept children’s cognitive immaturity as adaptive.
What is the critical period?
Period shortly after birth when stimulation to certain stimuli and experiences can produce proper development.
What is imprinting?
Process by which animals form attachment during critical period very early in life. Children do NOT imprint.
What is the connection between Parenting and attachment?
Responsive, sensitive parenting leads to secure attachment.
Irresponsible parenting leads to insecure attachment
Seperation from parents
Anxiety peaks at 13 months then gradually declines.
What does secure attachment lead to?
Social competence because of basic trust, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy. Develops because of responsive caregivers.
What happens with attachment is deprived?
Early abuse can permanently alter development of brain’s emotion processing limbic system.
There is sluggish serotonin response in abused children who become violent adults.
What happens during disruption of attachment?
During 6 and 16 months has negative effects.
What is the relationship between a father and a child?
Paternal deprivation puts children at increased risk for psychological and social pathologies.
What is basic trust?
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy. Formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
What is basic trust caused by?
Positive early parenting.
What is the relation between daycare and attachment?
More time in day care = slightly advanced thinking and language.
No major maternal effect on children for stay-in moms.
What is the definition of self concept?
A sense of one’s identity and personal worth.
When does self-concept develop?
By age 12, most children will have developed self concept.
Starts as early as 6 months.
Recognition in a mirror occurs by 15 to 18 months.
Self images become stable by age 8 or 10.
What is the best child rearing practice?
Authoritative parenting. This leads to high self-esteem, self-reliance and social competence. Because they feel they are in control.

The relationship between parenting style and childhood outcomes is correlation NOT causation.
What causes early puberty?
Improved nutrition, Father absence, weak parent child bonds and child obesity for girls.
What is puberty?
The period of sexual maturation when a person is capable of reproducing.
When does puberty begin?
11 in girls and age 13 in boys.
What happens during puberty?
• Primary sex characteristics develop – body structures that make reproduction possible.
• Secondary sex characteristics develop – nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as breasts and hips, deeper voice and body hair.
What are puberty’s landmarks?
 First ejaculation at age 14
 And first menstrual period (menarche) at age 12 – 13.
 Frontal lobe development lags behind between emotional limbic system
What are Kohlberg’s principles of morality?
Prevoncentional morality – morality of self-interest. Before the age of 9. Obeying to avoid punishment or gain rewards.
Conventional morality – upholds laws and social rules to maintain social order and gain approval. Occurs in early adolescence.
Post conventional morality – affirms agreed-upon rights and develops basic ethical principles. Occurs in adults.
What are some criticisms of Kohlberg?
 It appears mostly in euro and north American middle class.
 Biased against moral reasoning of communal societies such as China and India and against Western women who are based more on caring relationships.
What is moral feeling?
Moral feelings are quick gut feelings, which trigger moral reasoning, which aims to convince others about what we feel
What is the chief task of adolescence?
To solidify ones sense of self – one’s identity.
What is the adolescent’s understanding of identity?
For erikson, the adolescent solidifies a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
What are the characteristics of identity?
Less strong during early to mid-teen years and self-esteem increases during late teens and twenties.
Identity becomes more personalized.
What are the various stages of psychosocial development?
Infancy stage – trust vs. mistrust
Toddlerhood (1 to 2 years) – Autonomy Vs. shame and doubt
Preschooler (3 to 5 years) – Initiative vs. guilt
Elementary School (6 yrs to puberty) – Competence vs. inferiority.
Adolescence (teen into 20s) – Identity Vs. role confusion
Young adulthood (20s to early 40s) – Intimacy vs. isolation
Middle adulthood (40s to 60s) – Generativity vs. stagnation
Late adulthood (late 60s and up) – Integrity vs. despair
What is intimacy?
The ability to form close, loving relationships. Occurs in late adolescence and early adulthood.
What are the differences between women and men?
Women are more relationship-oriented
Women are more interdependent, emphasize caring.
What are the phases in Gender differences in social development?
Gender differences peak in late adolescence and early adulthood.
By age 50 women and men switch roles. Women become more assertive and self-confident and men become more emphatic and less domineering.
What are characteristics of parent-adolescent conflicts?
From early to late adolescence, conflicts become more intense or progressively less frequent.
Diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence
What are the signs of aging?
Menopause for women. Which begins within a few years of age 50.
Gradual decline in sperm count for men.
Is it true that during old age many of the brain’s neurons die?
Is it through that recognition memory – the ability to identify things previously experienced declines with age?
Is it true that life satisfaction peaks in the fifties and then gradually declines after age 65?
What sensory abilities decline in old age?
• Visual sharpness,
• Muscle strength
• Reaction time
• Stamina
• Hearing
• Distance perception
• Sense of smell
• Begins after age 65
How is brain health in old age?
• Suffer less from short term illness.
• Women’s brain shrink more slowly than men.
• Brain regions important to memory begin to atrophy.
• Birth of new cells and increase of neural connections helps to compensate for cell loss.
• Risk of dementia doubles every 5 years in later life.
What causes Alzheimer’s disease?
Deterioration of neurons that produce the neuro transmitter acetylcholine.
What are the results of Alzehimer’s?
Gradual detererioration of memory, reasoning, language and finally physical functioning. It is progressive and irreversible.
How do adults fare on memory tests?
They lose out to younger adults on recall and memory tests
They are equivalent to younger adults on recognition tests.

Prospective memory is strong when events act as triggers.
Time based and habitual tasks are weaker for old adults.
What happens to intellectual powers in old age?
• Cross-sectional tests show decline
• Longitudinal tests show stability and even increase.
• Non verbal scores decline
• Verbal scores stable
What is crystallized intelligence?
• One’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills.
• Tends to increase with age.
What is fluid intelligence?
• One’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly.
• Tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Does cohabitation a good way to avoid an eventual divorce?
No.. those who cohabited before marriage had higher divorce rates than those who did not.
Some characteristics of adult commitments
• Empty nest = greater happiness and enjoyment of marriage
• Cohabitation leads to greater divorces
• Happier when married
• Adult moods are less extreme but more enduring. Less highs and lows.
Expressing grief strongly do not purge it more quickly.
Grief work is not reliably healing.
Terminally ill and bereaved people do not go through predictable stages
What are the general agreements of psychologists?
• First 2 years of life provide poor basis for predicting eventual traits
• As people grow older, continuity of personality does gradually increase.
• Some characteristics such as temperament are more stable than others, such as social attitudes.
• Attitudes become stable with age.
• We all change with age. Change can occur without changing a person’s position relative to others of the same age.
How do researchers who emphasize experience and learning see development?
They see it as a slow, continuous shaping process.
How do researchers who emphasize biological maturation tend to see development?
They see it as a sequence of genetically predetermined stages or steps. Progress through various stages may be quick or slow, but everyone passes through the stages in the same order.
What are the Benefits of stage theories?
• Alert us to differences among people of different ages
• Keeps the life span perspective in view.
What does life development require?
Both stability and change.
What is the purpose of the IQ test?
It is invented to predict academic performance and identify children who needed special attention.
What is mental age?
A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.
How do you calculate IQ?
IQ = Mental Age/Chronological age x 100
Average performance for a given age is given a score of 100.
What is intelligence?
Intelligence is a socially constructed concept. It is a mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
What is factor analysis?
Statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factosr) on a test. Used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score.
What is general intelligence? (g)
A general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task an intelligence test.
What are multiple intelligences?
Gardner’s belief that we have multiple intelligences that are each relatively independent of the others.
What does multiple intelligences include?
Distinct apititudes for musical accomplishment, spatial aptitudes
What is savant syndrome?
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill such as in computation or drawing.
What are characteristics of savants?
Most savants are males and are diagnosed with autism.
What are the 3 types of intelligence according to Sternberg?
Analytical intelligence – assessed by intelligence tests
Creative intelligence – reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas.
Practical intelligence – often required for everyday tasks, with multiple solutions.
What is social intelligence?
Knowledge of how to comprehend social situations and manage oneself successfully.
What is emotional intelligence?
Ability to perceive, express, understand and regulate emotions. It is a critical part of social intelligence.
What does the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) assess?
It tests the test-taker’s ability to perceive emotions
Understand emotions
Regulate emotions
What are the five components of creativity?
Expertise – a well developed base of knowledge
Imaginative thinking skills – provide the ability to see things in new ways, recognize patterns or make connections
Venturesome personality – perseverance and the seeking of new experiences
Intrinsic motivation – intrinsic pleasure and challenge as a motivating factor
Creative environment – an environment that supports and refines creative ideas.
Is there a correlation between brain size and intelligence?
Yes, there is a slight correlation between intelligence and brain size.
What is the cause of correlation between brain size and intelligence?
Differing gences, nutrition, environmental stimulation etc.
Highly educated people die with more synapses.
What is the relationship between perceptual speed and intelligence?
Faster perceptual speed means a greater neurological speed means people who tend to score higher on intelligence tests, especially perceptual tasks.
What is the difference between intelligent people and normal people?
They have more brain synapses
Take in info more quickly
Show faster brain-wave responses.
What is an aptitude test?
A test designed to predict a person’s future performance.
What is an achievement test?
A test designed to assess what a person has learned.
What is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)?
The most widely used intelligence test. Contains verbal and performance substests.
What is a trend in intelligence test scores?
Intelligence test performance has been improving over time.
Gains were greatest on nonverbal tests.
What are the three criteria for psychological tests?
What is standardization?
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”
What is reliability?
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
What is validity?
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
What is content validity?
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
What is predictive validity?
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict. It is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
What is the criterion?
The behavior that a test is designed to predict. The measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity.
What is the correlation between aptitude tests and predictive validity?
Predictability or correlation is strong in elementary school but decreases as it goes up the educational ladder?
Why does the correlation between aptitude tests and performance weaken when higher up the educational ladder?
There is a narrowing of range of scores in graduate schools reduce predictive validity.
What are characteristics of intelligence scores and childhood?
By age 4 children’s performance on intelligence tests predit adolescent and adult scores.
High scoring adolescents are early readers
At age 7 intelligence test scores stabilize.
Consistency of test scores over time increases with age of the child.
What is mental retardation?
Limited mental ability indicated by an intelligence score below 70. Difficulty in adapting to the demands of life. Males outnumber females by 50 percent.
What is Down syndrome?
A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup.
What is the relationship between genes and intelligence scores?
Identical twins have virtually similar scores. Much more similar than fraternal twins.
With age, genetic influences become more apparent – adopted children’s intelligence scores becmore more like their biological parents.
What is the genes for genius?
Chromosome 6.
What is the schooling effect?
Children who’ve had more time in school have higher intelligence scores than who have less.
What are some gender differences in intelligence?
Girls surpass boys in memory for picture associations
women read non verbal cues better (detect emotions better)
What is a stereotype threat?
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
What are the four leading causes of death in US in 2000?
Life-style related
Heart disease
Cancer Strokes
Chronic lung disease
What is behavioural medicine?
An interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge to health and disease.
What is health psychology
A subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine
What is stress
Process whereby we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
How does stress work?
Stressful event – Appraisal – Response
Where do the stress hormones enter the bloodstream?
From sympathetic nerve endings in the inner part of the adrenal glends
What governs hormone release?
Hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
What perceives the stressor?
Cerebral cortex
Where are stress hormones released?
From the nerve endings in the inner parts of the adrenal glands
What is the general adaptation syndrome?
Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three stages – 1) alarm, 2) resistance and 3) exhaustion.
What is the result of prolonged stress?
Shrunken hippocampus – the structure vital to laying down explicit memories.
When do events become especially stressful?
When we perceive them to be both negative and uncontrolled.
Loss of control leads to ill health.
Pessimism leads to health problems.
What effect does poverty and inequality have?
Poorer people are at risk for premature death
People die younger in areas where there is greater income inquality
People at every income level are at greater risk of death if they live in a community with great income inequality
What are effects of stress on the body?
Stress hormones rise
Immune responses drop
Elevated levels of blood pressure
Surgical wounds heal more slowly
Disease fighting mechanisms are weaker during high stress
Accelerate faster transition from HIV infection to AIDS
Increase cancer’s rate of preogression
What is the Type A personality?
Competitive, hard driving impatient verbally aggressive, and anger-prone peple
What is the Type B personality?
Easygoing, relaxed people.
What are Type A personalities more prone to heart attacks?
They smoke more, sleep less and drink more caffeine
Physiologically reactive temperament
Stress hormones accelerate build up of plaques on the artery walls.
They more negative emotions especially anger
Relationship between depression and heart disease?
Depression makes one more vulnerable to heart disease
Depressed people 4 times more likely to develop further heart problems after heart attack
What is a psychophysiological illness?
“mind-body” illness or any stress-related illness such as hypertension and some headaches.
What are lymphocytes?
The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system.
B lyphocytes form in the Bone marrow ( B goes to Bone) releasing antibodies to fight bacterial infection
T lymphocytes form in the Thymus ( T goes to Thymus) and attacks cancer cells, viruses and other foreign substances.
What are women prone to?
As they are immune system is stronger
They are prone to self-attacking diseases such as lupus and multiple schlerosis.
How does aerobic exercise reduce stress?
Reduces depression and anxiety
Prevents symptom recurrence
Gives an immediate mood boost
Increases production of mind boosting neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin and endorphins
Enhances cognitive abilities such as memory
Promotes growth of new brain cells
Reduce risk of death
How does biofeedback reduce stress?
Its useful for tension headaches.
What is biofeedback?
A system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state such as blood pressure or muscle tension.
How does social support affect stress?
More close relationships = better health
Married people live longer, healthier lives than unmarried.
Social support clams the cardiovascular system, lowers blood pressure and stress hormones
Suppressed traumas have negative effect on physical health
Ability to confide improved health
How does religion affect stress?
Those who attended religious services regularly less likely to die.
Three factors:
Gives coherent world-view
Gives a sense of community
Makes one have a healthier lifestyle
When and why do people smoke?
Start during early adolescence
More common with dropouts and those whose friends, parents smoke
Because of social approval
Higher addiction rate than heroin and cocaine
Smoking is mood reinforcing
It triggers the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine which diminishes appetite and boosts alertness and mental efficiency.
It makes the central nervous system release neurotransmitters that calm anxiety and reduce sensitivity to pain.
What happens when you smoke?
Arouse brain to increased alertness
Increase heart rate and blood pressure
Relaxes muscle and releases endorphins that may reduce stress
Reduces circulation to extremities (like fingers)
Suppresses appetite for carbohydrates
Stimulates the release and increase of dopamine
Who smokes?
Smoking is mostly found in lower educated and lower socio-economic level
Smoking has skyrocketed in China and Japan.
What effect that nutrition have on stress?
High carbo foods increase amount of tryptophan and raises level of serotonin which makes one feel relaxed, sleepy and less sensitive to pain.
High protein meal improves concentration and alertness
Hypertensive people have higher than normal salt intake and lower than normal calcium instake
Omega-3 leads to low depression rates
The truth about fat cells
They may shrink on a diet but never disappear
Fat tissue has low metabolic rate
When weight drops below set point – hunger increases, metabolism decreases.
People’s weights correlate with biological parents
Fewer than 1/3 of overweight people maintained their weight loss.
What is psychotherapy?
An emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a train therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties.
What is psychoanalysis?
Freud’s technique.
What is resistance?
The blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
What is interpretation?
Noting supposed dream meanings, resistances and other behavior to promote insight
What is transference?
The patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
What is psychodynamic theory?
Same as Freuid’s method
Searches for causes
May talk face to face
Only a few weeks or months
What is interpersonal psychotherapy?
Help people gain insight into root of difficulties
Focuses on current relationships and assists people in improving their relationship skills
Symptom relief here and now
What is client centered therapy?
Carl Roger’s method . Therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting and emphathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth.
Focus on conscious self perceptions rather than own therapist interpretations
What is active listening?
Where listener echoes, restates and clarifies.
What is behavior therapy?
Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behavior. Does not examine underlying causes or problem.
Includes classical conditioning techniques.
What are the two counterconditioning techniques?
Systematic desensitization - associates pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Normally used to treat phobias. It is a form of exposure therapy.

Aversive conditioning – associates a pleasant state (nausea etc) with an unwanted behavior (drinking alcohol)
What is operant conditioning?
Reinforcing desired behaviors and punishing undesired behavior
Used of rewards (token economy)
What is cognitive therapy?
Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting. Based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. Commonly used for non-specific problems like depression and general anxiety.
What is cognitive behavior therapy?
A popular intergrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behaviour therapy (changing behavior)
Why are client perceptions not a good assessment of psychotherapy?
People enter therapy in crisis but may naturally recover
Clients need to believe therapy was worth the effort
Clients like therapists and speak kindly of them
What is regression toward the mean?
Tendency for unusual events or emotions to ‘regress’ toward their average state.
What is meta-analysis?
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different result studies
Effects of psychotherapy
Outcome for average therapy client surpassed that of 80% of the untreated people.
Improvement is not always permanent
Therapy is effective when the problem is clear-cut
What is the verdict on Therapeutic touch?
No healing people beyond the placebo effect
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing?
Eye movement itself is not therapeutic.
What is therapeutic is exposure therapy and placebo effect
Light Exposure Therapy?
It does dim SAD symptoms
What 3 benefits do psychotherapists offer?
Hope for demoralized people
A new perspective
An empathic, trusting and caring relationship
What is psychopharmacoogy?
The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior.
What are some of the anti-psychotic drugs?
Thorazine – dampen responsiveness. For positive schizo symptoms.
Clozaril – increase responsiveness. For negative symptoms. (blocks serotonin activity)
Most antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors – overreactive dopamine system contributes to schizophrenia. Parkinsons = too little dopamine.
Side effects of anti-psychotic drugs = tremors, sluggishness, twitches.
What are some anti-anxiety drugs?
Valium or Xanas
What are some antidepressant drugs?
They work by blocking reabsorption and removal of serotonin from synapses
Side effects – dry mouth, weight gain, hypertension or izzy spells
Takes 4 weeks for full psychological effects
Increased serotonin promotes neurogenesis or the birth of new brain cells.
Placebos with side effects are nearly as effective as drugs themselves
25% difference bet placebo and drug
Lithium is stabilitizer for bipolar people
What is ECT?
Biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
3 sessions each which for 2 to 4 weeks (80% benefit)
Energizes depressed patients’ relatively inactive left frontal lobe
Promote production of norepinphrine
What is psychosurgery?
Removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
What is attribution theory?
The theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.
What is the fundamental attribution error?
The tendency to underestimate impact of the situation and oversestimate the impact of personal disposition.
How does fundamental attribution error work?
When examining our behavior- we overemphasis on the situations.
When examining other’s behavior – we overemphasis on the personality traits.
Do attitudes guide actions?
Three factors are needed

Outside influences on what we say or do are minimal
The attitude is relevant to the behavior
We are keenly aware of our attitudes
what is free association?
exploring unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind
What is psychoanalysis?
theory of personality that attibutes our thougths and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts.
What is the id?
a reservoid of unconscious psychic energy that according to Freud, strves to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. operates on the pleasure principle.
What is the ego?
largely conscious executive part of personality that mediates dmenads of id, superego and reality. operates on the reality principle.
What is the superego?
The part of personality that according to freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and for future aspirations.
what are the psychosexual stages?
oral - 0 - 18 mths
anal 18-36 mths
phallic 3 - 6 years
latency 6 to puberty
genital puberty onwards
What is identification?
process by which children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos.
What are defence mechanisms?
ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
What is reaction formation?
defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unaccpetable impulses into their opposites. feelings that are opposite of their anxiety arousing unconscious feelings.
What is self actualization?
the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physicla and psychlogical needs are met and self esteem is achieved. the motivation to fulfill one's potential
What are 3 elements of roger's person centered perspective?
What is unconditional positive regard?
attitude of total acceptance towrad another person.
What are the criticisms of the humanistic perspective?
vague and subjective
individualistic and self centered
naively optimistic
What is a trait?
a characteristic pattern of behaviour or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
What are the Big FIVE personality factors?
emotional stability
What are the Big Five characteristics?
stable in adulthood
heritability of 50 percent
applies to other cultures
predicts personal attributes
Criticisms of trait perspective?
human behavior varies across different situations
questions about consistency with which traits are expressed
What is the social cognitive perspective?
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
What is reciprocal determinism?
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
What are the pillars of positive psychology?
positive subjective well being
positive character
positive groups communities and cultures
What is the best way to predict someone's behavior in a given situation?
observe that person's behavior pattern in similar situations.
Criticisms of the social-cognitive perspective?
does not take into consideration the importance of unconscious dynamics, emotions and inner traits
What is the spotlight effect?
overestimating other's noticing and evaluating our appearance performance and blunders.
What is the self serving bias?
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
What is the terror management theory?
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death.
What is the current view of the unconscious?
it consists of schemas that control our perceptions
priming that leads to interpretations
parallel processing that occurs without conscious knowledge
implicit memories of learned skills
instantly activated emotions
What is the false consensus effect?
the tendency to overestimate the effect to which others share our beliefs and behaviours. Similar to Freud's projection.
What do modern theorists think causes defense mechanisms?
the need to protect self image.
What is the foot in the door phenomenon?
Tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Attitudes can follow behavior. Why?
People rationalize their own behavior
Because we feel dissonance about the inconsistency between actions and attitudes
Less coerced and more responsible for an action, the more dissonance one feels.
What is the cognitive dissonance theory?
Theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. Reducing dissonance by changing attitudes.
What is conformity?
Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
What are the conditions which strengthen conformity?
One is made to feel incompetent or insecure
One group has at least 3 people
The group is unanimous
One admires the group’s status and attractiveness
Oen has made no prior commitment to any response
Others in the group observe one’s behavior
One’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards
When do we conform?
Conform the most when tasks are important with difficult judgements.
Conform the least when high importance with easy judgement.
What is normative social influence?
nfluence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
What is informational social influence?
Influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality.
Milgram’s experiment. Obedience was highest when:
Person give orders was close at hand and seen as authority figure
Authority figure supported by prestigious institution or group
Victim was depersonalized or held in another room.
There were no role models for defiance.
What is social facilitation?
Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others.
Occurs with simple or well learned tasks
Does not occur with diffcult or not yet mastered tasks
What is social loafing?
Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts towards common goal than when individually accountable.
Common in men in individualistic cultures
What is deindividuation?
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Occurs when group participation makes people feel aroused and anonymous
What is group polarization?
The enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
What is groupthink?
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
Dissenting views were self-censored.
Prevented when a leader welcomes various opinions and invites experts’ critiques
What is minority influence?
The power of one or two individuals to sway majorities.
What is prejudice?
Mixture of beliefs, emotions and predisposition to action. Stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings and predisposition to discriminatory action.
What is the scapegoat theory?
Theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
What is categorization?
Overestimate similarity of people in other groups
Sensitive to differences within our group.
What is vivid cases?
More vivid, memorable cases come to mind easier
What is the just-world phenomenon
The belief that the world is just and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
What are genetic markers that mark one that causes most violence?
Y chromosome
Neural influences of aggression?
Diminished activity in the frontal lobes leads to aggression as frontal lobes inhibit aggression.
Testosterone if high leads to aggression
Dominating behavior leads to testorerone increase.
What are some aversive events that cause aggression?
Physical pain, personal insults, hot temperatures etc.
Aggressive role models
Conditioning and reinforcing tendencies towards violence
Minimal father care leads to high violence rates among families
Sexual Aggression and the Media
Rise of home video business
Watching x rated films make sexual aggression less serious and ones partner less attractive
Increases the acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations
Increases acceptance of uncommitted sex
What is conflict?
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas
What is a social trap?
A situation in which the conflicting parties by pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
What are enemy perceptions?
Tendency to form diabolical images of one another that are ironically similar like mirror images.
What are the main factors of attraction?
Proximity – mere exposure effect
Physical attractiveness (attractiveness is unrelated to self-esteem and happiness) (symmetrical faces are more attractive)
Similarity of interestes
Romantic Love is divided into:
Passionate love – aroused state of intense positive aborption in another. Present at the beginning of a love relationship.
Companionate love – deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
What is equity?
The condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
What is bystander intervention process?
Notice incident
Interpret it as emergency
Assumes Responsibility
Attempts to help
What is the bystander effect?
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Whatare the best odds for helping someone?
Just seen someone be helpful
We are not in a hurry
Appears to need & deserve help
Similar to us
Feeling guilty
We are focused on others and not preoccupied
We are in a good mood
What is the social exchange theory?
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Involves reciprocity norm – return help to others
And social responsibility norm – we should help those who need our help.
What are superordinate goals?
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
What does GRIT stand for?
Graduated and Reciprocated Initatives in Tension-Reduction