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108 Cards in this Set

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When is the most rapid change of development for an individual?
In early childhood.
What does the organization "Zero to Three" deal with?
Studies relating to the fundemental time of early childhood that if disrupted can hinder functioning later on.
Where and when does brain development begin?
The neural plate folds into the neural tube; 3 to 4 weeks after conception.
What condition can result if the neural tube does not close?
Spina bifida.
What is the best prevention mechanism for spina bifida?
Folic acid prior to conception.
What symptoms are associated with spina bifida?
water on the brain, organ troubles, learning disabilities.
The condition spina bifida is most common in this group.
Hispanics.
What correlations are associated with spina bifida?
Low socio-economic status, obestity, lack of nutrition/care, high temperature exposure.
Which section of the brain develops last?
The forebrain.
Where is the "survival center" for a developing infant?
In the hindbrain.
What is proliferation?
Production of neurons occurs; probably almost all that you'll ever have exist at birth.
When does proliferation occur?
Between 2-4 months following conception; espeically between 10-20 weeks.
What is migration?
The process in which the neurons move to the "right place" in the brain; collection with other cells to form major parts of the brain; a genetically and biochemically directed process.
When does migration occur?
Between eight to 15 weeks.
What can faulty migration lead to?
Developmental disorders in the infant.
What is differentiation?
Growth in size of the neurons and neurotransmitter production.
When does differentiation occur?
The last few prenatal months and the first few years.
What is and when does synaptogenesis occur?
A brain "growht-spurt" and creation of synapses.
Why does the brain need early stimulation?
To ensure that there is the greatest amount of efficiency later on in life.
When is the greatest damage from teratogens possible?
During migration, as if neurons don't reach final destination, mental retardation can result.
Why might those with fetal alcohol syndrome have problems with mental retardation and lower intelligence?
Fetal alcohol syndrome causes children to be hyperactive and have a short attention span, and attention is the "gateway" to cognition.
What are some physical traits of a child with fetal alcohol syndrome?
Flat midface, upturned nose, eye folds, smooth filtrim.
What structurally is different about a child with FAS?
They have larger brain ventricles, and less white matter with fewer synaptic connections. This can affect executive functioning and attention.
What structure helps neurons network together?
The growth comb.
In experiments with rats, what did the differences in the brain show between the impoverished and rich environment conditions?
Those in the rich environment had greater cortex size, capillary supply, glial cells and Ach.
Who conducted the study with Romanian orphans?
Elinor Ames.
After 10 years of having been out of a Romanian orphanage, what differences were noticed?
Lower IQ scores and school achievements, and ongoing learning disabilities.
With Elinor Ames study, what is important to note?
The great individual variability that exists;
Why does brain plasticity relate to the Romanian orphan study?
We have have an over-production of synapses intially because hte neurons aren't fully comitted to a function; so changes can still be made potentially later on.
What can overstimulation for young child cause?
ADHD; they do not have the power to turn off televisions; need human interaction.
What is cephalocaudal development?
Development in the child goes from head to tail; hence why children's heads are abnormally large but average out over time.
What is proximodistal development?
The sequence of physical maturation that goes from the center of the body to the extremities.
What is the orthogenetic principle?
The fact that physical development moves from general to specific - think of organ development.
What are the purposes of reflexes?
They are involuntary, however they are necessary for
What are the major milestones of locomotor development?
Gross motor skills, crawling and walking.
Who developed the dynamic systems perspective?
Esther Thelen.
What is the dynamic systems perspective?
New skills emerge as infants actively re-organize existing motor capabilities into new and more complex action systems.
What is proprioception?
The sense of movement and location in sense that infants gain at 9 months.
What motivates babies to learn how to reach?
Contact and learning.
When does the ulnar grasp develop?
At three to four months; can be adjusted to size and shape of an object; fingers go against the palm.
When does the pincer grasp develop?
At one year of age; can pick up raisins and turn knobs, etc.
What are secular growth trends?
Changes in physical development from one generation to the next; has cultural variation; we're bigger than ever before.
When does early adolescence occur in girls?
Between the ages of 10 and 12.
What marks the peak of the female growth spurt?
Menarche.
What are the hormones released for girls and boys during adolescence?
Estrogen and androgens.
What are the secondary sex characteristics that develop during adolescence?
Boys: broadening of hte shoulders, less fat; girls: broadening hips and more fat.
What can potentially cause precocious puberty in girls?
Environmental toxins, obesity, societal changes (sexual image portrayal).
Of adolescents maturing early/late, who usually has the most problems?
Early maturing girls and late maturing boys.
What are some of the declines in functioning that can occur with aging?
Decrease in reserve capacity for emergencies, slowing of motor skills, chronic diseases (osteoarthritis) and menopause/andropause.
What is selective optimization with compensation?
You have to be selective about the things you do when you age - have goals, recognize obstacles and figure out to compensate.
What is perception?
How we categorize sensations and interpret them;
What are the two different theories related to perception?
1) Enrichment theory (Piaget) - available knowledge enhances sensory information; 2) Differentiation theory (Gibson) all information is available in the sensory stimulation; we must detect the differentiating information.
What did the empiricists believe?
You need to build on skills as a young infant; they have no idea what is going on; William James thought this way.
What did the nativists believe?
The infant is equipped with skills that cause him/her to be smarter than we think.
What is starting state nativism?
The baby comes equipped with certain skills, but also needs to be stimulated by the environment; a compromise between the nativists and the empiricists.
What is a disadvantage of the preferential looking technique?
It requires motivation on the infant to discrimate the stimuli - might not be interested in interacting.
What is habituation?
Presenting something to a child over and over again until the response decreases; if infants dishabituate (exhibit the original response) to the second stimulus, then they can discriminate. Again, requires motivation, but the most common technique.
What is evoked potential?
A measurement of neural development in the child; electrodes are placed on the infant's head in areas that are invovled in information processing;
What are ERP's?
Related to evoked potential measurements; event related potentials; baby can get bored and doesn't always stay still.
What sort of learning does high-amplitude sucking use?
Operant conditioning.
What is high amplitude sucking?
Infants are giving a pacifier with a special circuitry that activates a slide projector when sucking rate increases;
What vision cues do babies prefer?
Patterns of modern complexity; contours (light and dark transitions), human faces (evolutionary advantage) and movement.
What aspect of vision is better intially?
Peripheral vision is better intially;
What are kinetic depth cues?
They are cues that are created by movements of the body or of objects in the environment;
Why might infants learn languages with greater ease than adults?
Their early discrimination of basic speech sounds (phonemes) are better than adults; however, synaptic pruning can occur.
What did DeCasper and Fifer realize about infants' voice recognition?
Babies can recognize the voice of the mother within the first three days of life; modify the sucking style for mom's voice as a reward; heartbeat will increase in fetus with mother's voice.
What is cross-modal perception?
When the usage of one sensory modality helps to identify a stimulus that you have already experienced in another modality; requires the development of source knowledge - knowing how we know something.
What does cross-modal perception invovle?
The integration of senses.
What was the claim made by Meltzoff and Borton?
They believed that newborns can tactually and visually discriminate; they can store mental represenations and relate them to one another. Experiment required three experimenters, normally kids prefer novel objects, but 24/32 looked at the similarly textured object.
What did Lewkowicz and Terkewitz claim?
That at one month of age, there was cross modal equivalence of auditory and visual intensity.
What are intuitive theories?
There are organized systems of knowledge that allow infants to make sense of the wrold;
What did Elizabeth Spelke believe in?
"core knowledge"; the fact that we have inbuilt knowledge, goes along with intutitive theories.
What is "theory theory"?
THe idea that the child is all about revising knowledge once they are exposed to new, conflicting knowledge; but does humans hypothesize early on?
What did the neonatal theory state?
That 12-21 year old infants can imitate others;
What did Meltzoff and Moore think about the emergence of representation?
They believed that babies can compare sensory information from their motor action with the representation of the gestures and construct a "match"; through observational learning.
What did Karen Wynn believe?
She thought that infants possess true numerical concepts - they were able to add and subtract/
What was a concern with Wynn's findings?
There was violation of expectancy - when you're not expecting something, you'll look at it longer because you don't understand it - so Wynn claimed that this showed that infants could add and subtract because they looked longer at the impossible addition.
Overall, what do the findings regarding perception reveal?
Perceptual understanding does not imply cognitive understanding.
What is the meaning of anism?
Attributing human like characteristics to objects; Piaget.
What did Piaget's research reveal about the learning process of children?
He emphasized the importance of errors as sources of imformation;
What is genetic epistemology?
The study of how knowledge grows.
What is equilibrium?
Things are fine in a stage; stable; associated with assimilation: incorporating information into exisiting schemes;
What is cognitive disequilibrium?
When something in a scheme no longer makes sense; motivates accommodation: adjust schemes to account for new information;
What is decaloge?
Uneveness in domains/subject areas no matter in what stage you are; can have different ability levels in one stage;
Wha is recognitory assimilation?
The infant recognizes how to fit blanket in mouth vs. thumb.
How can the speed of neural transmissions increase in the developing brain?
With the myelin sheath.
What did Hubel's and Wiesel's findings illustrate?
They did an experiment with kittens, that showed that the brain has great plasticity - the response to an individual's experience can develop in a variety of ways.
What occurs in lateralization?
THe functions of the two brain hemispheres diverge and they communicate through the corpus callosum.
What can the absence of primative reflexes indicate in young infants?
Neurological disorders.
What advantage can sleep have for infants?
It can help them regulate sensory stimulation.
What are rhythmic stereotypes?
The fact that infants move their bodies in repetative ways - rocking, swaying, bouncing. Esther Thelen - infants performed these actions before a new skill emerged but not after.
What did Esther Thelen's findings reveal?
That nature and nurture are both inseparable and essential.
What stimulates activity for adolescent growth?
The hypothalamus.
What is ageism?
Prejudice against elderly individuals.
What is HRT?
Hormone Replacement Therapy - designed to reduce menopause symptoms.
What is important to note between the differences in male and female aging?
Male andropause is more varied, gradual and less complete.
What famous individual was an empiricist?
John Locke believed in the tabula rasa (blank slate) in infants.
What is visual accomodation?
The ability of the lens to change shape to bring objects at different distances into focus;
What is the site of the nasal receptors called?
Olfaction.
What aspect of a child are imporatnt for recognizing touch, temperature and pain?
Tactile Sensors.
What sort of attention develops in the child?
Selective attention - deliberately concentrating on one thing while ignoring another; attention becomes more discriminating with time;
What occurs in the adult in relation to sensory and perceptual capacities?
Raised sensory thresholds - the point at which low levels of stimulation can be detected.
What term describes why adults may have to wear reading glasses?
Presbyopia - decreased ability of the lens to accommodate objects close to the eye;
What is one's peak visual acuity?
In their 20's.
What is the clinical method and who used this technique?
Flexible question and answering to discover how children think about problems; Piaget.
What is adaptation?
The process of adjusting to the demands of the environment; occurs through assimilation and accommodation;
How does intelligence develop in an individual?
Through interation of the individual and his/her environment;
What is the A-not-B error?
The tendancy of 8 to 12 month olds to search for an object in the place they last found it, rather than in the new hiding place; capable of mental representations at 18 months.