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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is hypothetico-deductive reasoning?
A formal operation allowing one to reason logically about abstract thinking.
What is the most common way of evaluating hypothetico-deductive reasoning?
The Pendulum Task;
What are some advantages to the formal operations stage?
Complex thought, Identity formation, and understanding others.
What are some disadvantages to the formal operations stage?
Confusion, idealism, disrespect for authority and invincibility.
What is adolescent egocentrism?
The idea of imaginary audiences (everyone is like you) and personal fable (no one can understand you).
What were some of Piaget's contributions to psychology?
Founding of cognitive development as a discipline, emphasis of active explorations, explained development and great heuristic value.
What are some challenges to Piaget's reasoning?
Competance versus performance (whether kids can actually understand the tasks, rather than just perform them); questioning of cognitive development as a stage theory (we see too much variability); little attention to social and cultural influences;
What is relativistic thinking?
There are no absolutes in life - the less you realize that you know; you come to this realization in postformal thought;
What are cohort effects?
Different life effects and life opportunities that arise from the development of an individual;
What is a predictor of Alzheimer's Disease?
Mild cognitive impairment - forgetting with age: blockage: you know you know something;
What are some potential warning signs for adults with memory problems?
When memory is getting progressively worse; interference with daily activity; forgetting how to use something (like a tool of somesort); others getting worried.
What causes Alzheimer's Disease?
Tangles in the amyloid beta protein, which causes damage to the neurons that project to the hippocampus and cerebral cortex; leads to hippocampal shrinkage;
What environmental qualities can reduce the potential effects of aging?
Increased physical activity can ensure increased blood flow to the brain; a proper diet - well-balanced and avoiding toxins; mentally stimulating activities such as crosswords;
What is the name of Lev Vygotsky's theory?
The Sociocultural Perspective.
What is the zone of proximal development?
Range of tasks that are too complex to be masted alone, but you can achieve them with guidence from skilled partners; such as math problems and other puzzles.
What did Vygotsky believe are the tools of intellectual development?
Methods of thinking and strategies that children internalize with more competant members of society in close range.
What were Piaget's and Vygotsky's views on language?
Piaget thought that language reflected cognitive levels, and that egocentric speech is a sign of immaturity; Vygotsky thought that languge influences our cognitive development, and he thought that private speehc to oneself helps us figure out a problem.
On what grounds did Vygotsky challenge Piaget?
The idea that cognitive development is not universal; cognitive growth stems from social interaction; adults are critical for change - but adults who are incompetant can undermine cognitive development;
What is arbitraryness?
The fact that we all agree on what words are - a tree is a tree, etc.
What does it mean that language is generative?
The fact that even if you haven't heard a sentance before, you can still understand it.
What is displacement?
The fact that you can talk about items that don't exist; you can transfer knowledge to next generation;
What is joint attention?
The fact that someone can point to something and you know what they are talking about;
Who were the individuals who studied language?
Steven Pinker (Luxurious Flowing Hair Club for Scientists) and Noam Chomsky;
What is the language acquisition device?
The natural way of making sense of language stimuli; language understanding is something that we are born with;
What evidence is there that language exists in our genetics?
It is species specific - only humans have it; difficult to get language "wrong"; we have an anatomy that is structured to lend itself to the ability of language; HOWEVER - you need to acquire language in a critical period;
What is the wug test?
The fact that we can work with novel ideas and you know the right sentance structure from a young age.
What can help a child figure out speech?
Child-directive speech (motherese, fatherese) - high pitched, repetitive, simple sentances that can influence children; prosodic features - stressing certain sounds that are picked up from adults can help children figure out words' meanings;
What case illustrates the necessity of socialization in young children?
Genie - social deprivation for 12 years, she had little progress gramatically, and little left hemisphere activity (where the language department is located)
What is the thought on 2nd language learning?
The fact that there is more overlap in bilingual brains - so using multiple areas;
What happens to children who face brain damage?
They regain abilities more easily than adults do; males 15-24 are the other risk levels;
When is the main focus on self?
In adolescence;
What did William James say about the self?
It is the most puzzling puzzle in all of psychology - where is it? when does it develop?
What is the self?
The lens through which we view the world;
Why is the question tell me about yourself difficult to answer?
Because people are so multi-faceted, and so this question is easier when it is context-specific;
What is self concept?
The development of own attributes and traits; both negative and positive.
What is self complexity?
The need to have multiple aspects to your life and then look into the future; the higher your self complexity, the healthier you are psychologically;
What did Erikson view as the main challenge in the stage entitled Identity vs. Role Confusion?
Figuring out where one fits in, and integrating different aspects of the self into a coherent whole, appreciating own idiosyncrasies;
What did Marcia believe were the steps to developing a sense of self?
Developing one's own values, sexuality and job.
What are the four categories in which Marcia placed adolescents?
Diffusion, moratorium, foreclosure and achievement.
Which category for adolescents is the most unhealthy?
Foreclosure - you have not settled down for yourself - no crisis, but commitment made;
What are the influences on self development?
Cognitive growth (formal operations stage - reflexive thought); relationship with parents (questionning, but supportive); experience outside the home (peers that challenge you in a non-threatening way); broader cultural context (considering the global community and incorporating this into yourself)
When choosing mentors, what do you need to be careful of?
The "superstar" complex - if you choose someone more accomplished than you, you may be stretching yourself too far;
What is a protective measure for your life?
Self complexity - if one thing fails, you don't have anything else otherwise;
What are the three ideal selves that are identified by Markus and Nurius?
Ideal - What you would like to be/do; actual - what you are right now; ought - what you should be/do;
What discepincies can exist in identity formation?
If you set your ideals too high, you may wind up with depression.
What is the test for self-recognition?
The "rouge test" - all by 2 years of age;
What is the categorical self?
Toddlers can characterize themself by gender, age, etc.
When does personality develop by?
Two years of age - own preferneces and own understanding has been developed;
What does joint attention require us to do?
Appreciate perspective, even though you have shared sight of an object;
What are the two sectors of William James' I vs. me?
The public self (me) - sense of self as an object of evaluation; the private self (thse sense of self as a knower - act and exert impact)
When do qualitative differences arise about personalities?
At age 10.
What is self esteem, according to Susan Harter?
Judgement of one's own self-worth; function of performance;
What does general self-esteem break down into?
-physical appearance
- social competance
- academic competance
What is animism?
Attributing life-like qualities to inanimate objects.
What is egocentrism?
View world from own perspective, while failing to recognize other's point of view - child does not have ability to recognize other perspectives yet.
What two operations do you need to succeed at conservation?
Decentration and reversibility/
What is decentration?
When an individual must focus on more than one aspect of something.
What does Deloache's experiments with Snoopy show?
The child sees the minature Snoopy as a separate object, rather than the smaller version of something real.
What can imaginary friends do for children?
They might allow greater cognitive advantages.
What are some benefits of pretend play?
Children create scenarios at their own will; "as if" thinking is a precursor to theory of mind; facilitates growth in thinking.
What occurs during concete operational stage?
Class inclusion (not just apples or fruit, apples can count as fruit); conservation (reversibility and decentration); mental seriation; transitivity.
What does the eye study show about Piaget's theory?
That CO children would put the third eye on the forehead, but FO children are willing to place it elsewhere on their bodies.
What is displacement?
The idea that language can be applied to thing that don't even exist, but we can still understand it.
What is pragmatics?
Rules that specify how language is used appropriately in different social contexts.
What is semantics?
Language that concerns the meanings of words - required to interpret sentances, paragraphs, books, etc.
What is morphology?
Rules for forming words from sounds;
What are the names of the basic units of sound in a given language?
What is cooing?
Repeating vowel sounds at six to eight weeks.
What is babbling?
Repeating consonant-vowel combinations.
According to Piaget, babbling would be an example of what sort of reaction?
Primary circular reaction, because repeating because they have the pleasure of doing so.
What are holophrases and when do they develop?
Normally around one years of age; a word conveys a meanings worth of sentance.
What is telegraphic speech?
When two or more words come together to form a sentance;
If a child used doggie to describe all four legged animals, this child is making an error known as?
If a child used doggie to only describe his household dog, this child is making an error known as what?
What is metalinguistic awareness?
The appreciation of a language as a system, allowing for the ability to reflect about a language.
What does Broca's area control?
Speaking with the frontal lobe.
What does Wernicke's area relate to?
Speech recognition.
What are three aspects of temperment?
Emotionality, activity and sociability.
What is the looking glass self?
Understanding of self as a reflection of how other people respond to us. (Cooley)
How old is a child before he/she recognises themself?
2 yo.
What plays a role in developing self-esteem?
Parenting, peers, cultural influences and race/ethnic groups.
What is the problem with studying the self?
The information we have is all self-reported.
What describes self-descriptions over time?
They become less physical and more psychological.
What is gender typing?
Children become aware that they are males and females, and then they acquire motives, values, and patterns of behavior that their culture considers appropriate.
What is communality?
The center of the feminine role - emotionality and sensitivity to others.
What is agency?
The center aspect of males' role; orientation to individual action and achievement.
What is the social role hypothesis?
Suggests that there are differences in the roles that men and women play in society which do alot to creat and maintain gender stereotypes.