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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
PIAGET THEORETICAL APPROACH
- looks at the quality of cognitive functioning
- concerned with how the mind structures its activities and adapts ot the environment
REINFORCEMENT
- a stimulus that encourages repetition of a desired behavior
1st Stage of Piaget's Theory
- Sensorimotor
- 0 to 2 years
- infants learn through senses and motor activity
SCHEMES
- Piaget's term
- organized patterns of behavior used in particular situations
- mental frameworks in the mind that provide a model for action (0-1month)
- Develops early in each stage
OBJECT PERMANENCE
- understanding that a person or object still exists when out of sight.
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
- developed by Lev Vygotsky
- determines the gap between what a child is able to do and what they are not quite ready to accomplish themselves
PHONEMES
- sound of the syllables
- 39-44 in the English language
WHOLE LANGUAGE APPROACH
- stresses that learning to read should parallel the child's natural learning of language.
- The premise is that reading should be integrated with other skills
BASIC SKILLS AND PHONICS APPROACH
- emphasizes teaching phonetics and its rules for translating written symbols into sounds
LEARNING THEORY
- behaviorist
- based on reinforcement and punishment
- cognitive development due to experiences
- the more you know the greater the ability to reason
NATIVISM
Theory that human beings have an inborn capacity for language acquisition
TEMPERAMENT STUDY
- Thomas and Chess study
- 3 temperament types
- Easy: children are mostly happy, relaxed, and agreeable (40%)
- Difficult: children are moody, easily frustrated, over-reactive (10%)
- Slow to warm-up: children are somewhat shy and withdrawn, take time to adjust (15%)
- Research shows consistency of temperament throughout early childhood and even adulthood
ERICKSON'S SOCIAL THEORY
- 8 stage theory
- the socially and culturally enhanced process of development of the ego and self.
- physical contact stimulates CNS and PNS
ATTACHMENT
- develops at 8 months- 24 months
SECURELY ATTACHED
- cries or protests when primary care giver leaves
- primary care giver is a secure base for exploration of environment
- responds positively when picked up by others
- plays well with strangers when mom is around
- upset when mom leaves
- hugs mom when she returns
SEPARATION ANXIETY
- distress shown by an infant when a fmiliar caregiver leaves
A 2 year old
- speaking in two word statements
- deferred imitation- hold on to an image in the mind and act on it later
- thinking is unsystematic, illogical, irrational, egocentric
- one-way monologues
- inability to decenter
- fail conservation tasks
- don't understand theory of mind
- animism
- are not cause and effect thinkers
- first word is dada
HOMECARE
- family member watches the child
- cheap, less structured and social interaction, strong sense of family
UNLICENSED DAYCARES
- babysitting
- cheaper, less structured, not secure
LICENSED DAYCARES
- more expensive
- run on ratios
- monitored
MONTESSORI SCHOOLS
- how and why children are raised
- most expensive because of ver good rationales
- makes learning fun and enjoyable
- teacher is not always in hierarchial status but more of a facilitator
GROSS MOTOR SKILLS
- require large muscles
- rolling over
- catching a ball
FINE MOTOR SKILLS
- use small muscles
- grasping a rattle
- copying a circle
DEFERRED IMITATION
- 18 to 24 months
- hold on to an image in mind and act on it later
CENTRATION
- tendency of preoperational children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
SCAFFOLDING
- temporary support from parents, teachers, or others given to a child to do a task until the child can do it on its own and master it
SELF-CONCEPT
- the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is
SELF ESTEEM
- the judgements we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgementes
ERICKSON'S STAGE LINKED TO EARLY CHILDHOOD
- Basic trust vs. mistrust
- autonomy vs. shame and doubt
GENDER ROLES
- sociall determined
- what it means to be a male based on behaviors
- different cultures have different criteria
- develops early on
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
- Albert Bandura
- does t.v. violence causes aggresion
- When a person needs to perform a behavior first he or she has to have an attention span, than motivation to do it. They need the motor skills to replicate the behavior and the ability to remember what he or she saw
PARALLEL PLAY
- child plays beside other children and with similar toys
AUTHORITARIAN
- strict and controlling
- high expectations
- lacks communication and dialogue with child
AUTHORITATIVE
- high control and parameters
- high expectations
- communication is open
- most popular and has highest achieving children
NEGLECTFUL
- parent is preoccupied with something else
- no control or parameters
- not caring for children
INDULGENT
- low control, parameters, and structure
- high expectations and indulge the child
- don't know how to parent or they blame others
HOSTILE AGGRESION
- behavior meant to hurt another person
- 2 types: overt(physical harm) and relational(social exclusion)
WHOSE MOST LIKELY TO ABUSE OR NEGLECT A CHILD
- parent who is anxious, depressed or hostile and tries to control a child physically
- households are disorganized and experience more stressful events
- Neglectful parents are apathetic, incompetent, irresponsible, or emotionally withdrawn. Parents were neglected themselves
- socially isolated
- substance abuse