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18 Cards in this Set

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aggression
intentional act aimed at physical or psychological pain
hostile v. instrumental aggression
hostile: act stemming from feelings of anger to create pain

instrumental: means toward some goal
eros, thanatos
eros=instinct toward life
thanatos=instinctual drive toward death, leading to aggressive actions
aggression/ culture
iroquois: became aggressive b/c of social change, produced inc. in competition

"culture of honor":endorse in violence for protection & in response to insults in cognitions, emotions, behaviors, and physiological reactions
neural/aggression
amygdala: associated with aggressive behavior
serotonin:inhibiting effect on implusive aggression
testosterone:inc. in violent ppl more then nonviolent ppl
gender differences
boys:more overly aggressive
girls: gossip, back-biting, rumors
alcohol
disinhibitor (reduces social inhibitions, less conscious); respond more violently
Frustration-aggression theory
perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal inc. probablity of aggressive behavior
-closer you are to goal=more likely aggression
-aggression inc. when frustration is unexpected
-relative deprivation: perception that you have less than you deserve
Provocation and reciprocation
if provoked unintentionally, will not reciprocate
Social Learning Theory
learn social behavior by observing/imitation others
-dont have to personally experience rewards and punishments in order to learn
violence in media
-more violence watched on TV as kid=more violent during adolescence
-priming:exposing children to weapons lying around inc. prob aggression
-desensitizes adults
reactions to media that might inc. aggression
-if they can do it, so can i
-oh, thats how you do it!
-think it must be aggressive feelings that im experiencing
-hum, another battle, what else is on
-i had better get him before he gets me
violent pornography
scripts=ways of behaving socially that we learn implicitly from culture

sexual scripts:females=resist male's sexual advances; males=be persistent

-exposure to violent pornography promotes greater acceptance of sexual violence toward women and is factor associated w/ actual aggressive behavior.
reducing aggression/ punishment
good if: prompt, certain/consistent, percieved fair by aggressor, certainly more important as a detterrent than severe
catharsis
"blowing off steam" by performing an aggressive act, watching one, or fantasizing about one
Freud's hydrolic theory of aggression
like a balloon-> get bigger and bigger until it bursts and let out aggression
catharsis results
Doesnt work, doesnt reduce tendencies
Acts of violence may inc. after watching aggression
Being allowed to aggress at time 1, does not curb aggression at time 2
Belief that catharsis works can create aggression
Might improve mood
effect of general aggression
-Active enabling= deep breaths, counting to 10, distracting activity
-Helps to reveal emotion
-Take responsibility/apologize
-Communicate anger in constructive ways
-More empathy=less aggression