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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
DEVELOPMENT
changes over time in physical structure, thought, or behavior of a person - result of both biological and environmental influences
DEVELOPMENTAL PSHYCHOLOGIST
psychologists whose primary interests focus on the study of developmental processes and events
DEVELOPMENTAL PERIOD (or stage)
discreet period of the lifespan during which predictable changes occure
CHRONOLGOICAL
arranged according to age
BIOLOGICAL FACTORS
genetic, neurological, or physical conditions that affect the development of an individual
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
specific situations that an individual experiences and that influence behavior and development
SOCIAL CONTEXT
general features of the society in which an individual resides -
MATURATION
developmental changes that are linked closely to biological events
LEARNING
developmental changes that are dependent on a person's interactions with the environment
CONTEXT
particular setting or situation in which development occurs; the "backdrop" for development
COLLECTIVIST CULTURE
culture where the group takes precedence over the individual. Cooperation/group achievement over competition/individual achievement.
SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT
a broad context that includes both social and cultural influences
INDIVIDUALIST CULTURE
CULTURE WHEN COMPETITION PREDOMINATES OVER COOPERATION AND PERSONAL ACHIEVEMENT IS TYPICALLY VALUED MORE HIGHLY THAN GROUP ACHIEVEMENT. INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM AND CHOICE RECEIVE STRONGE EMPHASIS
physical domain
aspects of development that involve changes in physical shape and size, as well as changes in brain structure, sensory capabilities, and motor skills
cognitive domain
development that involve the acquisition of skills in perceiving, thinking , and reasoning, and problem solving as well as the intricate development and use of language
personality domain
development that invovle acquiring relatively stable an denduring traits, as well as a sense of self as an individual
sociocultural domain
development comprised of socialization and enculturation
socialization
teachings by parents and others about how to fit in and function in society
enculturation
learning about culture by observing and absorbing rather than being taught
theroy
organized, coherent set of ideas that helps us to understand, to explain, and to make predictions
4 theory types to understand development
biologically based theories
psycho dynamic theories
behavioral theories
cognitive theories
data
results from a scientific investigation
evolution
process through which species change across generations - darwinism (1809-1882
natural selection
theory originated by Darwin of survival of the fittest, where better adapted individuals survive to reproduce, thereby transferring their genes to their offspring and into future generations
ethology
study of patterns of animal behavior, especially behavior that is guided by instinct
evolutionary psychology
study of inherited psychological characteristics that combine an evolutionary approach with research in cognitive psychology
human genome
entire arrangement of all human genes
developmental neuroscience
study of the development of brain structures and the relationship between brain structures and functions and behavior and development
Erik Erikson
neo-freudian - termed psychosocial theory. emphasized ego forces and the influence of social interactions on development. believed development occurs throughout the lifespan
Sigmund Freud
psychodynamic approach - emphasize role of unconscious mind and interactions of three psychic processes - the id, ego, and superego.
Freud's 5 psychosexual stages
believed the adult personality was heavily influenced by events that occurred in childhood
oral - birth to 18 mo
anal - 18 mo to 3 yrs
phallic- 3 yrs to 6 yrs
latency- 6 yrs to 12 yr
genital - 12 yr and up