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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of a compuslive fear of getting fat
An eating disorder in which youg people engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by bing eating followed by deliberate votming
Thinking about thought; a coherent set of ideas about mental activites
Metagcognitive thinking
Adolescents believe that they are the focus of everyone's attention
Imaginary Audience
Certin that others are observing and thinking abou tthem, teenagers develop inflated opinion of their own importance; feeling that they are special and unique
personal fable
Combination of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide rang of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate

types: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved
Child-rearing styles
an aspect of self-concept that involves judgment about one's own worth and feelings associated with those judgments
Self esteem
crediting their successes to ability, a characteristic they can improve through trying hard and can count on facing new challenges
Mastery-oriented attributions
Children who attribute their failues to ability, they believe that ability cannot be improved by trying hard
Learned helplessness
sequence of phases characterizing the development of most families around the world. In early adulthood, people typically live on their own, marry, bear and rear children
Family Life cycle
Selecting a mate, the components of love, and culture and the experience of love
Patterns of intimate relationships
end of menstruation cycle
Occurd when a cell's genetic program is disrupted leading to uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cell that grows out normal tissues and organs
a behavior pattern characterized by extreme competiveness, ambition, impatiences, hostility, angry oubursts, and a sense of time pressure
Type A Behavior
Intellectual skills that largely depend on basic information processing skills; ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli speed of analyzing information and capactiy of working memory
Fluid Intelligence
Intellectual skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgment, and mastery of social conventions- distinguished from fluid intelligence
Crystalized Intelligence
Women and ethnic minorities face a glass ceiling or barrier to advancement up the corporate ladder
Glass ceiling
chronological age in an imperfect predictor of functional or actual competence or performance
functional age
The number of years an individual born in a particular year can expect to live in full health, without disease or injury.
average healthy life expectancy
the number of years a person has lived, used especially in psychometrics as a standard against which certain varaibeles, such as behavior and intelligence are measured
chronological age
Basic self-care tasks required to live on one's own, such as bathing, dressing, getting in and out or bed, or eating
Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)
the most common form of dementia, in which structural and chemical brain deterioration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behvior; accounts for 60% of all dementia
Alzheimer's Disease
Refers to a set of disorders ocurring almost entirely in old age in which many aspects of thought and behavior are so impaired that everyday activities are disrupted. 13% of adults over 65, rise increases with age after 80 years old, 50% chance after 85
Automatic form of memory; memory without conscious awareness
Implicit memory
age related delcine in binding information into complexe memories. Researchers call this associative memory or difficulty creating and retrieving links between pieces of information
Associatve Memory
a type of memory that invovles remembering a stimulus that is not present
recall memory
recall of the order in which events occured or how recently they happened
temporal memory
mutual withdrawl between elders and society takes place in anticipation of death. Older people decrease their activity levels and interact less frequently becoming more preoccupied with their inner lives
disengagement theory
under way by 8 or 9- androgens: male hormones
5-7 members who are friends and usually resemble one another in family, backgroud, attitudes, and values
rate increase over lifespan from childhood to old age but jumps sharply in adolescence--third leading cause amongest American youths after auto and homocides
Viewing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought. aware of a diversity of opinions on many topics, they gave up the possibility of absolute truth in favor of multiple truths, each relative to its context
relativistic thinking
when faced with a problems, they start with a hypothesis or predictions about variables that mmight affect outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real worl
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
this type of parenting is linked to higher grades among adolescents varying widely in SES
Authoritative parenting style
What cell does shigella enter?
Where does it enter the cell?
How does it spread?

M cell

Enter the mucosal epithelial cells from underneath

Commandeering the Actin
A child-rearing style that is low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive and psychological control, and low in autonomy granting
Authoritarian parenting style
Over time, proteing fibers that make up a body's connective tissue form bonds or links with one another. When these normally separate fibers cross-link, tissye becomes less elastic, leading to many negative outcomes
Cross-linkage theory of aging
DNA in body cells is gradually damages through spontaneous or externally cause mutations. As these accumulate, cell repair and replacement become less efficient, and abnormal cancerous cells are often produced
Random events theory of aging
naturally occuring highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen
Free radicals
special type of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes serving as a "cap" to protect the ends from destruction, shortens. Eventually so little reminds that the cells no longer duplicate at all
transition into middle adulthood
midlife crisis
he was the first to recognize identity as the major personality achievement of adolescense and as a crucial step toward becoming a productive, content adult
Psychological conflict of adolescence- if a young persons earlier conflicts were resolved negatively or if society limits their choices to ones that do not math their abilities and desires, they may appear shallow, directionless, and unprepared for the challenges od adulthood
identity v. role confusion
Generativity invovles reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation
Generativity vs. stagnation
involves coming to terms with one's life. Adults who arrive at a sense of integrity feel whole, complete, and satisfied with their achievements
Ego integrity theory
Around age 11 young people enter the formal operational stage in which they develop the capacity for abstract, sytematic, scientific thinking. Concrete operational children can operate on reality
For those who invested heavily in their careers, finding other way to affirm self-worth through family, friendship, and community life
Ego differentiation
surrounding physical limitations by emphasizing the compensating rewards of cognitive, emotional, and social powers
Body transcendence
as contemporaries die facing the reality of death constrictively through efforts to make life more secure, meaningful, and gratifying for younger generations
ego transcendence
Age related changes in memory vary widely across tasks and indidviduals as people us their cognitive capacities to meet requirements of their everyday worlds
Mortality is externally controlled. Children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by their consequences. Behaviors that result in punishment are viewed as bas, those that lead to rewards as good
Theory of moral development: preconventional level
individuals continue to regard conformity to social rules as important, but not for reasons of self-interest. They believe that actively maintaining the current social system ensures positive relationships and societal order. Stage3- the “good boy- good girl” orientation or the morality of interpersonal cooperation. Stage 4- The social-order-maintaining orientation.
theory of moral development: conventional level
, move beyond unquestioning support for their own society’s rules and laws. They define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies. Stage 5- The social contract orientation. Stage 6- The universal ethical principle orientation.
theory or moral development: postconventional level
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
Kubler-ross dying stages
A key concept in Levinson's theory is the underlying design of a person's life, conssiting of relationships with significant others-individuals, groups, and institutions
Levinson: life structures
the middle-aged persons must seek new ways of being young and old. this means giving up certain youthgul qualities, retaining and transforming others, and finding positive meaning in being older
Levinson: young-old
With greater awareness of mortality, the middle-aged person focuses on ways he or she had acted destructively and how others have done the same. Past hurtful acts toward family members, friends, and co-workers are counters by a strong desire to particpiate in activities that advance human welfare
levinson: destruction-creation
the middle-aged person must create a better balance between masculinity and feminine parts of self
Levinson: masculinty-feminity
The middle aged person must forge a better balance between engagement with the external world and separateness; reducing concern for ambition
levinson: engagement-separateness
exploration without having reached commitment
Identity moratorium
commitment in the absence of exploration
identity foreclosure
an apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment
identity diffusion
slowing of central nervous system functioning underlies nearly all age-related declines in cognitive performance. This causes decreases in speed of processing, attention, memory, and creativity.
Neurological theories of cognitive changes in
future-oriented representations of what one hopes to become and what one is afraid of becoming. The temporal dimension of self-concept.
possible selves
A term used to describe middle-aged adults who must care for multiple generations above and below them at the same time.
sandwich generation