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65 Cards in this Set

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Pyschology
Ths scientific study of human and animal behavior
Overt behavior
An action or responce that is directly observable
Covert behavior
A Response that is internal or hidden from view
Empiracal evidence
Facts or information based on direct observation or experience
Data
Observed facts or evidence (data: plural, Datum singular)
Scientific Observation
An empirical investigation that is structured to answer questions about the world
Reasearch mentod
A systematic approach to answering scientific questions
Developmental Psychologist
A psychologist interested in human growth and development from birht until death
Learning theorist
Psychologist intersted in variables affecting learning and in theories of learning
Personaltiey theorist
A psychologist who studies personality traits, dynamics, and theories
Sensation and Perception psychologist
a psychologist who studies the sense organs and the process of perception
Comparative psychologist
A psychologist primarily interested in studying and comparing the behavior of different species, especially animals.
Biopsychologist
A psychologist who studies the ways in whic culture affects human behavior
Animal model
An animal in resarch whose behavior is used to discover princples that may appyly to human behavior
Description
The process of naming and classifying in scientific research
Understanding
achieved when the causes of a behavior can be stated
Prediction
And abiltiy to accurately forecast behavior
Control
Altering conditions that ingluence behavior
Stimulus
Any physical energy that has some effect on an organism and that evokes a response
Introspection
To look within; to examine onew's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations
Structuralism
Te school of thought concered with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements
Functionalism
School of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to ehier environments
Natural selection
Darwin's theory that evolution favors those plants and animals best suited to thier living conditions
Behaviorism
School of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior
Response
Any muscular action, glandular actibity, or other inedtifiable aspect of behavior
Conditioned response
A reflex response that has become associated witha a new stimulus
Cognitive behaviorism
An approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior
Gestalt psychology
A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning and perception in whle units, not by analysis into parts
Unconscious
Contents of the mind that are beyod awareness , expecially impulses and desires not directly known to a person
Repression
The unconscious process by which memories, thoughts, or impulses are held out of awareness
Psychoanalysis
A Freudian approach tho psycholotherapy emphasizing the exploration of unconscious conflicts
Psychodynamic theory
Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscous forces
Humanism
An approach to pshchology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals
Determimism
The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known
Free will
The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
Self Image
Total subjective perception of oneself
Self-evaluation
Positive and negative feeling held toward oneself
Frame of reference
A mental perspective used for judging and evaluationge events
Self-actualization
The proces of fully developing one's personal potential
Cognitive psychology
The area of psychology concerned with human thinking and information processing
Culturalrelativity
The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the valuse of the culture in whichin occurs
Norms
Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group
Psychologist
A person highly trined in the methods, factual knowledge, and theories of psychology
Clinical psychologist
A psychologist who specializes in the tratment of psychological and behavioral distrubances or who does research on such dsturbances
Counseling psychologist
A psychologist whe specializes in the treatmentof milder emotinal and behavioral disturbances
Scientist-practitioner model
A view which ohlds that clinical psychologists should be skilled both as scientist and as thereapist
Psychiatrist
A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders
Psychoanalyst
A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor trained to practice psychoanalysis
Counselor
A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorder (marriage, divorce, school, career)
Psychiatic social worker
A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals
Basic research
Scientific study undertaken without concern for immediate practical application
Applied research
Scientific study undertaken to solve immediate practical problems
Observation
Gathering data directly by recording facts or events
Scientific method
testing the truth of a proposition by careful measurement and controlled observation
Hypothesis
The predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationships between variables
Operational definition
Defining a scientific concept by stating the specific actions or procedures used to measure it. (ex. hunger= number of hours of deprivation)
Theory
A system of ideas designed to interrelate concepts and facts in a way that summarizes existing datat and predicts future observation
Naturalistic observation
Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings
Correlational method
Making measurements to discover relationsips between events
Expreimental methods
investigating behavior through controlled experimentation
Clinicla method
Studyig psychological problesm and therapies in clinical settings
Survey method
Using questionnaires and sureys to poll large groups of people
Natural setting
The environment in which an organism typically lives
Observer effect
Changes in behavior brought about by an awareness of being observed
Observer bias
Te tendency of an observer to distort observations or perception to match his or her expectations