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13 Cards in this Set

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Observational research basics
Observe phenomenon, record observations, look for patterns

little known about phenomenon, descriptive, role of research (unobtrusive observer v. participant observer)
how to record ob.
qualitative: written description
quantitative: frequency (count of behavoirs), duration (legnth of time behaviors occur), ratings (subjective judgments)

inter-observer/inter-rater reliability is key; provide guidance to observers so they will be consistent
Halo Error
provide similar ratings across multiple rating scales; rater doesnt distinguish among characteristics
Primacy/Recency Error
rater overly influenced by what participant does early/late in observational pd.
Constract Error
rater influenced by previous participant
if current follows high performing: low ratings
if current follows low performing: hi ratings
Leniency/ Severity Error
rater tends to provide all hi or all low ratings
Central Tendancy Error
rater tends to provide ratings in middle of rating scale
strategies for observers
behavioral checklists(coding)
behavioral rating scales (adjective anchors more suceptible to error; open to interpretation)
observer training
sampling strategy
event:focus on recording specific behaviors
time: sample beh for predetermined amount of time instead of continuous record of accounts
individual: focus on 1 specific person at a time in group setting
quota: continue recordingdata until specific number of ppl are observed
cognitive dissonance
change attitude and beliefs to fit outcome; convince self effort was worthwhile
absense of control
no causal inferences
cant answer does x cause y?
only do x and y seem to be related
falsification
can eliminate possible causal relationships
participant reactivity
unobtrusive measures
direct: video or audiotapes collectec by hidden observers
indirect:assumed result of behaviors even though the behavoirs were not observed