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22 Cards in this Set

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sample vs. population
sample:subset of ppl who represent the population by participating in the study

population: the group of ppl that we'd like our study to represent/generalize to
category data
frequency counts, qualititative
every participant put into category
ranked
participant's position relative to others
1st, 2nd, 3rd
scaled
quantitative data that doesnt depend on other participant's scores
each score stands on its own
self-report measures
respond to questions from an interviewer or questionnaire

reactivity may be problem if ppl know what they are being measured

free-format self report: stimulus material, reponses indicate feelings w/out constraints. ex projective measures
fixed-format self report measures
presented w/ questions, response alternatives provided
more structured than free format
likert scale
likert scale
most popular, personaltiy and attitude research
series of items
Rosenbergs self-esteem scale
behavioral measures
potential for less reactivity
coding system, more than 1 rater
beh measured in terms of frequency, duration, intensity, proximity, speed
psychophysiological measures
assess the physiological functioning of the body's nervous and endocrine systems
may reduce reactivity
brain activity:EEg, MRI, CAT
stress; blood test, saliva test
frequency distribution
=histogram
-normal(bell shape)
-bimodal (2 lumps)
-negatively skewed (more scores tail off at low end)
-positively skewed(more scores tail off to high end)
classical test theory
X=T+E
x:observed score
t:true score
e:error

goal is X=T
reliability
index is correlation
>.70 is acceptable

types: test-retest,parellel forms, inter-rater, internal consistnecy
Test-Retest reliabilty
stability of a measure over time

administer same measure to same folks twice
calculate correlation of scores from time 1 to time 2
parellel forms reliability
consistency of scores from 1 version of a measure w/another version

administer 2 versions of same measure to same folks
calculate correlation of scores from form1 and form 2
Inter-Rater reliability
consistency with which ppl provide rating

2 rater provide ratings of same ppl
calculate correlation of scores given by rater 1 and 2
Internal consistency reliability
consistnecy of responses to items w/in a measure
split-half:divide measure into 2 (odd/even)
calculate correlation
coefficient alpha
average of all possible split halves
look at consistency of reponses across items
construct validity
how well an instrument measures an abstract quality; cant be determined directly
content validty
logic/conceptual evidence
concerned w/ sampling the domain the construct represents

ex.test w/ questions about peripheral stuff
Convergent and discriminant validty
statistical evidence
measure variable of interest and related (convergent) and unrelated(disc) variables

convergent:correlation should be positive
discriminant:correlation should be zero
scale
series of items, tap into unidemnsional construct
items should be intercorrelated
reponse bias
deviant responding(random)
careless responding(mistakes)
consistent resp(same rating for all items)
omitting items
extremity response(end points only)
social desirability(to look good)
aquiensence(agree with everything)