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29 Cards in this Set

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Confabulation
giving additional information and details that were not part of the original episode
Eyewitness Memory
1.Attribution error
2.Misleading Information
3.Inference
4.General Phenomena
Real Memories
results from lab are consistent with results from real life (concentration camp)
False Memory
bad term
implies a dichtomy
Implanting Memories
"remember when"
repetition
Flashbulb Memories
looking back at big events such as JFK assasination (where were you when...)2 assessments, difference of accuracy between first assessment and second
*just as inaccurate as control memories
Effect of Delay in Flashbulb Memory
longer delay=more consistent
short delay=less consistent
Winningham
Consistency score
scale of 0-8 that determines how consistent memory is from first to second trial in flashbulb tests
Category
group of objects/things that have something in common
*slightly different for each person
Exemplar
instance of a category item(chair is an exemplar of furniture)
Concept
mental representation of a category that allows generalizatoin
Classical View
neccisary and sufficient conditions for membership (3 sides and interior angles are difining features, so has category membership for triangle)
Typicality Effect
certain items faster b/c more typical
faster/more accurate to verify category membership
Category Hierarchies
Superordinate
Basic
Subordinate
Prototype Models
has all features
average,most typical examplar
can identify faster/more accurately even if you have never seen before b/c of all the similarities
2.compare new items to to prototype and assign membership on similarities to prototype
Prototype Effect
1.accurately categorize prototype w/o seeing it b4
Exemplar Models
store all exemplars
compare new items to stored exemplars and assign to same category as the most similar stored exemplar
*explains prototype and typicality effects
Prototype Effect
1.accurately categorize prototype w/o seeing it b4
Exemplar Models
store all exemplars
compare new items to stored exemplars and assign to same category as the most similar stored exemplar
*explains prototype and typicality effects
Collins and Quillian
Cognitive Economy
isa links and property links
takes time to move
times are additive and level independent
sentence verification paradigm
Cognitive Economy
store each property at highest level
be economic with memory storage
hierarchy effect
Priming
R/T difference between 2 related/unrelated items (4 trials total)
Lexical Decision
say whether a target is a word or not
*faster regarding test with related words than with unrelated words
SOA: Stimulus Onset Asynchrony
difference between the start of two events
1.Automatic
2.Strategic
Automatic SOA
seen at short SOAs
not enough time for strategic processes
Strategic SOA
seen at long SOAs
Neely (1977)
Priming
comparing short/long SOAs w/ manipulating expectations
two graphs to learn and breakdown
Spreading Activation
related concepts are connected, and related words get partially activated b/c they are likely to follow
has almost no organization at all
explains priming
4 assumptions
Assumptions
activatoin spreads on all paths
activation spreads in parallel
activation decreases over time
complex decision rules on negative trials